Authority bias

The tendency to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure (unrelated to its content) and be more influenced by that opinion.

bait and switch

A dark pattern that makes you think you are taking a specific action but a different undesirable action takes place

comparison shopping

The process of comparing various factors for a product or service before making a purchasing decision


A dark pattern where the option to decline an offer is worded to same the user into compliance


A person who purchases goods and services for personal use

Dark Patterns

website design features intended to trick users into doing things they might not want to do but which benefit The business in question

Disguised Ads

ads that are hidden as other as other kinds of content or navigation in order to get you to click on them

Drip pricing

The practice of initially showing consumers a lower price and then revealing additional fees at the time of payment

Forced Continuity

A dark pattern in which your free trial with a service comes to an end and your account begins to be charged without any warning

Friend Spam

A dark pattern in which a product asks for your email or social media permissions and then sends messages to all of your contacts pretending to be you


The use of game design elements to get you to spend more time and more money on a website or app

Hidden Fees

Additional charges added on to the cost of a good or service that a consumer may not necessarily be aware of at the time of purchase

Identity Theft

When someone steals your personal information to commit fraud such as applying for credit, filing taxes, or obtaining medical services


A person who is able to generate interest in something (such as a consumer product) by posting about it on social media

Installment Plan

A payment method that allows you to pay for purchases over time by dividing the purchase amount into smaller equal payments, often with interest and additional fees; also known as Buy Now Pay Later plans

Phishing Scam

A type of scam in which personal information is requested, typically through an illegitimate email

Price Matching

A practice used by some retailers to match a competitor's LOWER price for an item

QR Code Scam

A type of scam in which a QR code directs users to a fake website to collect information or install malware


An illegal trick, usually with the purpose of getting money or information from a person; a type of fraud

Scarcity Bias

The tendency to assume things that are scarce are valuable and things that are abundant are not

Social Proof Bias

The tendency to behave in a particular way because others are doing so


Purchasing goods second hand whether in person or through an online marketplace

2-Factor Authentication (2FA)

An extra layer of security that requires a user to provide two pieces of information (such as a password and a temporary code) to access an account

Ways of Influence

Factors such as authority, liking, or scarcity that have an effect on the way we make decisions

Unit Price

The cost for one item or measurement that allows it to be easily compared to other similar products to evaluate which is a better deal