Reproductive pairs


one male one female


one male, two or more females


multiple male and female bonds


no pair bonds


one female and 2 or more males


control of the behavior of a conspecific as a result of a previous encounter

mullerian mimics

when multiple noxious species mimic each other

batesian mimics

when a non-noxious species mimics a noxious species--- like snakes

the encounter effect

the phenomenon of a group not increasing proportionally with group size

the selfish herd

hypothesis by W.Dd Hamilton explaining how self-centered behavior can lead to aggregation

agonistic behavior

a system of behavior patterns with the common function of adjustment to situations of conflict among conspecifics


an area occupied more or less exclusively by an animal or group and defended by overt aggression or advertisement

home range

the area used habitually by an animal or group, in which an animal spends most of its time

mullers ratchet

is a process through which, in the absence of recombination (especially in an asexual population), an accumulation of irreversible deleterious mutations results

sexual selection

a special process that produces anatomical and behavioral traits that affect an individual's ability to acquire mates

good genes hypothesis

assume that traits favored by females in some way indicate male fitness