concept 1 test a&p


the most basic strutural and functional unit of life. the smallest part of an organism that is still capable of all lifes processes


specialized structures within the cell that work together to help the cell function


key large biological molecules that make up all living things


the monomer of nucleic acids

fatty acid

monomer of lipids


monomers of carbohydrates

amino acid

monomer of proteins


biological catalyst, mostly proteins


molecules that speed up biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to get the reaction going without changing the reactions or products

active site

the highly specific location on an enzyme where substances (reactants) bind


the process of stem cells or undifferentiated cells undergoing specialization to become specific types of cells with different functions

made of cells, respond to stimuli, able to grow and reproduce, use energy (have a metabolism), contain DNA and RNA as genetic material, adapt to their environment

list the characteristics that all living things share

Cell membrane

controls what goes in and out of the cell


key role in cell division and the anchoring of spindle fibers


move fluid across the cells surface


moves the entire cell through extracurricular fluid


holds the DNA that controls the activities of the cell


makes proteins

Rough ER

makes proteins

Smooth ER

makes lipids, chemical modifications, stores Ca+2

Golgi apparatus

processing proteins to be sent out


transport proteins around and out of the cell


breakdown of materials




site of cellular respiration

polar hydrophilic heads and no polar hydrophobic tails

in a cell membrane there are 2 layers of phospholipids what are they?


what are embedded for structure and signaling


what are embedded as channels for transport and also for signaling

CAN pass easily through membrane

small, nonpolar, hydrophobic, neutral molecules, and water

CAN NOT pass easily through the cell membrane

polar molecules (need protein channels) and large molecules (use vesicles)


energy storage molecules: structural uses, key for recognition in signal transduction pathways


energy storage molecules: main structure in the cell membrane, protection, insulation

Nucleic Acid

informational molecules: blueprint for making proteins, store/transmit/express our genetic info


everything else: enzymes, signaling, receptors, structural components, regulation, contractions, protection against disease, transport, storage

DNA, chromosomes, genes, proteins

your _____ is all of your genetic information, organized into46 ______stored in each of your body cells. Eachchromosome can be sectioned off into thousands of______, which provide the instructions for making _____. Protiens are what essentially run all of your body processes.

Enzymes are biological catalysts speeding up reactions. They are specific and only bind to certain substrates.

explain the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions

organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells

List the levels of organization within an organism


period of the cell cycle between cell divisions, the cell spends most of its life here, critical in S phase

S phase (synthesis)

when DNA is doubled so that the resulting cells after division have identical amount of chromosomes to parent cell


The division of chromosomes. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase


division of the cytoplasm into two identical cells

The structure of a cell or an organ or an organ system determines what it does. The anatomy of the body and it's physical processes are tied. From a structure's components we can determine how it contributes to the body's function

explain what is meant by the phrase "form dictates function" and why it will be an essential theme in this course