concept 1 test a&p

cell

the most basic strutural and functional unit of life. the smallest part of an organism that is still capable of all lifes processes

organelle

specialized structures within the cell that work together to help the cell function

macromolecule

key large biological molecules that make up all living things

nucleotide

the monomer of nucleic acids

fatty acid

monomer of lipids

monosaccharides

monomers of carbohydrates

amino acid

monomer of proteins

enzyme

biological catalyst, mostly proteins

catalyst

molecules that speed up biochemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to get the reaction going without changing the reactions or products

active site

the highly specific location on an enzyme where substances (reactants) bind

differentiation

the process of stem cells or undifferentiated cells undergoing specialization to become specific types of cells with different functions

made of cells, respond to stimuli, able to grow and reproduce, use energy (have a metabolism), contain DNA and RNA as genetic material, adapt to their environment

list the characteristics that all living things share

Cell membrane

controls what goes in and out of the cell

Centrioles

key role in cell division and the anchoring of spindle fibers

Cilia

move fluid across the cells surface

Flagella

moves the entire cell through extracurricular fluid

Nuclus

holds the DNA that controls the activities of the cell

Ribosomes

makes proteins

Rough ER

makes proteins

Smooth ER

makes lipids, chemical modifications, stores Ca+2

Golgi apparatus

processing proteins to be sent out

Vesicles

transport proteins around and out of the cell

Lysosomes

breakdown of materials

Vacuoles

storage

Mitochondria

site of cellular respiration

polar hydrophilic heads and no polar hydrophobic tails

in a cell membrane there are 2 layers of phospholipids what are they?

Carbohydrates

what are embedded for structure and signaling

Proteins

what are embedded as channels for transport and also for signaling

CAN pass easily through membrane

small, nonpolar, hydrophobic, neutral molecules, and water

CAN NOT pass easily through the cell membrane

polar molecules (need protein channels) and large molecules (use vesicles)

Carbohydrates

energy storage molecules: structural uses, key for recognition in signal transduction pathways

Lipids

energy storage molecules: main structure in the cell membrane, protection, insulation

Nucleic Acid

informational molecules: blueprint for making proteins, store/transmit/express our genetic info

Proteins

everything else: enzymes, signaling, receptors, structural components, regulation, contractions, protection against disease, transport, storage

DNA, chromosomes, genes, proteins

your _____ is all of your genetic information, organized into46 ______stored in each of your body cells. Eachchromosome can be sectioned off into thousands of______, which provide the instructions for making _____. Protiens are what essentially run all of your body processes.

Enzymes are biological catalysts speeding up reactions. They are specific and only bind to certain substrates.

explain the role of enzymes in biochemical reactions

organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells

List the levels of organization within an organism

Interphase

period of the cell cycle between cell divisions, the cell spends most of its life here, critical in S phase

S phase (synthesis)

when DNA is doubled so that the resulting cells after division have identical amount of chromosomes to parent cell

Mitosis

The division of chromosomes. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm into two identical cells

The structure of a cell or an organ or an organ system determines what it does. The anatomy of the body and it's physical processes are tied. From a structure's components we can determine how it contributes to the body's function

explain what is meant by the phrase "form dictates function" and why it will be an essential theme in this course