Large Animal I

How many bones do horses have?

A little over 200

Which bones of the forelimb are fused in horses?

Radius and ulna

The fore and hindlimbs of the horse support how much weight of the horse?

Forelimbs: 70%Hindlimbs: 30%

What part of the external anatomy of the hoof is the firmest part?

The wall

What part of the external anatomy of the hoof is considered "the heart of the horse's foot"?

The frog

How many laminae are there? What are they called? Where are they located?

2 laminaeEpidermal laminae (horny): inside of the hoof wallSensitive laminae (corium): covering the coffin bone

Which part of the laminae provides nutrition to the coffin bone?

Sensitive laminae (corium)

What is laminitis?

Inflammation of the sensitive laminae

What is chronic laminitis called?


What happens to the coffin bone after prolonged laminitis?

It protrudes through the sole of the horse's hoof

How many times a day should hooves be cleaned?

Once daily or before and after riding

What bacterium causes thrush?

Fusobacterium necrophorum

What are the first clinical signs of thrush?

Black exudate, smelly feet, pain

What tools are used on the external hoof?

Hoof testers, nippers, hook knife, shoe pull-offs, rasp, hook pick

Name the two most important tendons in the equine leg.

Superficial digital flexor tendonDeep digital flexor tendon

What tendon is most commonly injured in horses?

Superficial digital flexor tendon

Tendonitis is commonly known as _____________ in the equine world.

Bowed tendons

What are some causes of tendonitis?

Poor conformation, poor trimming/shoeing, improper conditioning, poor footing, direct trauma, "bandage bows

What tendon is tendonitis most common in?

Superficial digital flexor tendon

What is the correct way (directionally) to wrap the equine leg?

Start medial, unroll cranially, pull dorsal surfaceWrap towards head and towards outside

What is the guttural pouch used for?

Cools the blood going to the brain

What part of the equine gut is used for digestion of simple carbs?

Foregut: stomach and small intestine

What part of the equine gut is used to digest complex carbs?

Hindgut: cecum and large intestine

What is the term for "filing the equine teeth"?


How of is the equine before it has a full mouth of permanent teeth?

5 years

What type of teeth do horses have?


What is unique about equine lips?

They are used to grasp food

When do the adult teeth start replacing the deciduous teeth?

2-2 1/2 years of age

What is the Galvayne's Groove? Where is it located?

Used to guestimate age. Lateral surface of upper third incisor

Which teeth are commonly removed in horses?

Wolf teeth

What are hooks and points? Where do they occur?

Hooks: form on the distal surface of mandibular M3 and mesial surface of maxillary P2Points: form on the buccal and lingual surfaces of all teeth

What are caps? What teeth are they located on?

Retained deciduous teeth. Located on PM2 at 2 1/2 years of age and PM4 at 4 years of age

If cap teeth are found, what would a dentist do to them?

Remove them

What are some signs of dental disease?

Quidding, inefficient chewing, excessive salivation, weight loss/rough hair, foul odor, head shaking, sensitivity

What is quidding?

Dropping feed

What is unique about the cardiac sphincter of the horse?

It does not allow food back out

How much can the equine stomach hold?

2-3 gallons

What is choke?

Esophageal obstruction

How long is the equine small intestine?

70-72 feet

The equine digestive system is divided into 2 sections. What are these sections and what organs are located in these sections?

Foregut: esophagus, stomach, small intestineHindgut: cecum, large colon, small colon

What type of feed material is digested in the cecum?

Forage that was not digested in the foregut

What is the most common site for tapeworm impaction in the equine digestive system?

Ileocecal sphincter

What is the cecocolic orifice?

Connects the base of the cecum with the ascending (large) colon

Where is the most common site for feed impactions in the equine digestive system?

Pelvic flexure

How does feed material move through the equine digestive system?

Peristalsis and antiperistalsis

Where in the equine digestive system are the fecal balls formed?

Small colon aka descending colon