Groups of organs that carries out generalized sets of functions
Maintenance of stable environment
An individual; living thing.
smallest basic unit of matter
Group of cells working together with similar functions
smallest unit of life
Two or more tissues working together to complete specific task
study of structure and function of cells
Study of the structure and function of tissues
A group of atoms bonded together
the study of how the body and its parts work/function
The study of body and it's parts. Greek "cutting - up
level of human organization
atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye
all the chemical reactions in an organism that support life. Process by which the body converts food and drinks into energy.
taking into the body, as by swallowing; eating
The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules
5 environmental factors of life.
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure
self-regulating systems that monitor aspects of the internal environment and correct them as needed
The 3 parts of homeostatic mechanisms
receptor, control center, effector
detects and provides information about the stimuli
decision-maker that maintains the set point
muscle or gland that responds to the control center, and causes the necessary change in the internal environment
Opposing the initial change and reducing the output
Reinforcing the initial change and increasing the output.
The 2 fundamental divisions of human body
Axial portion & appendicular portion.
axial portion of the body
head, neck, trunk
appendicular portion of the body
upper and lower limbs
Anterior (ventral) cavities
The cavities in front of the body
dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities.
The Anterior (ventral) cavities
thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Cavity between the lungs contains: heart, thymus gland, esophagus, and trachea.
extends from diaphragm to top of pelvis, and contains stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys small intestine, most of large intestine
enclosed by pelvic bones, and contains end of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
back of body
toward the midline
away from the midline
Nearer to the trunk of the body
Farther from the trunk of the body
closer to the surface of the body
Away from the body surface; more internal
Paired structures, one on each side
on the same side
on the opposite side
above; toward the head
below; toward the tail
longitudinal cut that divides body into left and right portions
divides body into equal left and right portions
Sagittal section lateral to midline; divides body into unequal left and right portions.
Transverse (horizontal) section
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal (frontal) section
longitudinal cut that divides body into anterior and posterior portions
number of systems in the human body
Different types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
Some branches of Anatomy
Where is the control center located?
hypothalamus of the brain
examples of negative feedback
controls body temperature, blood pressure & blood sugar (glucose) level in the blood, water balance, blood PH
examples of positive feedback
childbirth and blood clotting
mediastinum cavity contains
midportion of the thoracic cavity containing the heart and trachea
thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa
Serous membranes consists of 2 layers:
visceral layer and parietal layer
inner layer, which covers an organ
outer layer, which lines wall of cavity
organs that are located within the peritoneal cavity. Include the liver, most of the small intestine, much of the colon, the stomach, the spleen, and part of the pancreas.
organs that are posterior to the peritoneal cavity. Includes the kidney, adrenal glands, the sex organs, the urinary bladder, part of the colon, and the pancreas.
Small cavities of the head
oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, middle ear cavities
Serous membrane that covers lungs
serous membrane that covers the heart
serous membrane that covers abdominopelvic organs
integumentary system components
Organ: skin. Hair, nails, sweat glands; sebaceous glands.
integumentary system functions
Protects tissues, regulate body temperature, support sensory receptors.
skeletal system components
Organ: bones. Ligaments, cartilages.
skeletal system functions
Provide framework, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts
muscular system organs
Muscular system function
cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat
Types of nervous systems
Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Nervous system components
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
nervous system functions
Detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands.
Endocrine system contains
pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, pancreas, testes, and ovaries.
endocrine system function
Control metabolic activities of body structures; growth.
cardiovascular system components
Organ: heart. Arteries, capillaries, veins.
cardiovascular system functions
Move blood through blood vessels and transport substances throughout body
lymphatic system components
lymph vessels and lymph nodes, thymus and spleen
lymphatic system functions
Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection
digestive system components
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine
digestive system function
breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and removes/eliminates waste/unabsorbed material
respiratory system components
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
respiratory system functions
Intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood
urinary system components
Organ: kidney. Ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.
urinary system functions
remove wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and eliminate urine
reproductive system (female) consists of
Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva.
reproductive system (male) consists of
Scrotum, testes, epididymides, Ducati's deferential, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethal glands, urethra, penis.