Chapter 1 A&P

Organ Systems

Groups of organs that carries out generalized sets of functions


Maintenance of stable environment


An individual; living thing.


smallest basic unit of matter


Group of cells working together with similar functions


smallest unit of life


Two or more tissues working together to complete specific task


study of structure and function of cells


Study of the structure and function of tissues


A group of atoms bonded together


the study of how the body and its parts work/function


The study of body and it's parts. Greek "cutting - up

level of human organization

atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

Gross Anatomy

Study of structures that can be seen with the naked eye


all the chemical reactions in an organism that support life. Process by which the body converts food and drinks into energy.


taking into the body, as by swallowing; eating


The process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules

5 environmental factors of life.

water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure

homeostatic mechanisms

self-regulating systems that monitor aspects of the internal environment and correct them as needed

The 3 parts of homeostatic mechanisms

receptor, control center, effector


detects and provides information about the stimuli

control center

decision-maker that maintains the set point


muscle or gland that responds to the control center, and causes the necessary change in the internal environment

negative feedback

Opposing the initial change and reducing the output

positive feedback

Reinforcing the initial change and increasing the output.

The 2 fundamental divisions of human body

Axial portion & appendicular portion.

axial portion of the body

head, neck, trunk

appendicular portion of the body

upper and lower limbs

Anterior (ventral) cavities

The cavities in front of the body


dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal pelvic cavities.

The Anterior (ventral) cavities

thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

thoracic cavity

Cavity between the lungs contains: heart, thymus gland, esophagus, and trachea.

abdominal cavity

extends from diaphragm to top of pelvis, and contains stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys small intestine, most of large intestine

pelvic cavity

enclosed by pelvic bones, and contains end of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

Posterior (dorsal)

back of body


toward the midline


away from the midline


Nearer to the trunk of the body


Farther from the trunk of the body

Superficial (external)

closer to the surface of the body


Away from the body surface; more internal


Paired structures, one on each side


on the same side


on the opposite side

Superior (cranial)

above; toward the head

inferior (claudal)

below; toward the tail

sagittal section

longitudinal cut that divides body into left and right portions

Mid-sagittal/Median section

divides body into equal left and right portions

parasigittal section

Sagittal section lateral to midline; divides body into unequal left and right portions.

Transverse (horizontal) section

divides the body into superior and inferior portions

Coronal (frontal) section

longitudinal cut that divides body into anterior and posterior portions

number of systems in the human body


Different types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Some branches of Anatomy

Histology, cytology

Where is the control center located?

hypothalamus of the brain

examples of negative feedback

controls body temperature, blood pressure & blood sugar (glucose) level in the blood, water balance, blood PH

examples of positive feedback

childbirth and blood clotting

mediastinum cavity contains

midportion of the thoracic cavity containing the heart and trachea

serous membrane

thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities and secretes a fluid that keeps the membrane moist; also called serosa

Serous membranes consists of 2 layers:

visceral layer and parietal layer

visceral layer

inner layer, which covers an organ

Parietal layer

outer layer, which lines wall of cavity

intraperitoneal organs

organs that are located within the peritoneal cavity. Include the liver, most of the small intestine, much of the colon, the stomach, the spleen, and part of the pancreas.

retroperitoneal organs

organs that are posterior to the peritoneal cavity. Includes the kidney, adrenal glands, the sex organs, the urinary bladder, part of the colon, and the pancreas.

Small cavities of the head

oral cavity, nasal cavity, orbital cavities, middle ear cavities

Serous membrane that covers lungs


serous membrane that covers the heart


serous membrane that covers abdominopelvic organs


integumentary system components

Organ: skin. Hair, nails, sweat glands; sebaceous glands.

integumentary system functions

Protects tissues, regulate body temperature, support sensory receptors.

skeletal system components

Organ: bones. Ligaments, cartilages.

skeletal system functions

Provide framework, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts

muscular system organs


Muscular system function

cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat

Types of nervous systems

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Nervous system components

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs

nervous system functions

Detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands.

Endocrine system contains

pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, pancreas, testes, and ovaries.

endocrine system function

Control metabolic activities of body structures; growth.

cardiovascular system components

Organ: heart. Arteries, capillaries, veins.

cardiovascular system functions

Move blood through blood vessels and transport substances throughout body

lymphatic system components

lymph vessels and lymph nodes, thymus and spleen

lymphatic system functions

Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection

digestive system components

mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine

digestive system function

breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and removes/eliminates waste/unabsorbed material

respiratory system components

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

respiratory system functions

Intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood

urinary system components

Organ: kidney. Ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.

urinary system functions

remove wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and eliminate urine

reproductive system (female) consists of

Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva.

reproductive system (male) consists of

Scrotum, testes, epididymides, Ducati's deferential, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethal glands, urethra, penis.