Science 40 I'll Try Not To Make Any Breaking Bad References

Matter is classified by 2 things, what are they?

It's physical state (solid, liquid, gas)It's composition (Mixture, compound, element)

Name and Describe the physical and molecular differences of the three states of matter

solid: atoms are compacted tightly together and allow little movement. It has a defined shape and volume and does not move. It is not compressionableLiquid: has a defined volume but no defined shape. It takes the shape of whatever it is contained in. The molecules are packed tightly together but still move rapidly so the liquid moves. It is not compressionable.Gas: has no defined volume or shape. It will occupy the entire space of whatever it is contained in. It can be compressed or expanded depending on the size of tehe conatiner. The atoms are not restricted at all and are not held tightly together but rather move rapidly at all times. The smaller the container, the more the atoms will rapidly bump inot each other and get fast as a result. Fastest moving atoms. we don't feel it because our bodies are used to gas molecules constantly bombarding our skin unless they are bombarded at a fast rate like a fan or holding your arm out the window of a car.

What leads to conversion in states of matter?

changes in temperature and/or pressure

pure substance

AKA substancematter that has distinct properties and composition does not vary from sample to sampleEX: Water and table salt


substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter. Each element is only composed of one type of atom


substances composed of two ro more different elements


combinations of two or more substances in which each substance retains it's chemical identity.

How many elemnts are there


Most elements interact with other elements to form


Water broken down has two elements with masses 89% of which is from oxygen and 11% is from Hydrogen which one has more atoms and why

Hydrogen. It has less mass but it has more as there are 2 hydrogens for every oxygen

Law of Constant Composition/Definite Proportions

The elemental composition of a compound is always the same

is there a difference between natural and synthesized compounds?


Difference between substance and mixture

the composition of a substance doesn't vary while a mixture can

substances making up a mixture are called


homogeneous mixture

AKA solutionsa mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout

heterogeneous mixture

a mixture where the compostion is not uniform throughout

Physical Properties

Properties that can be observed without changing the indentity or composition of the substance.EX: Color, odor, density melting point, boiling point, hardness.

chemical properties

describes the way a substance may change or react to form other susbtances. EX: flamability.

Intensive properties

properties that do not depend on the amount of sample present. Used for identifying substancesEX: temperature, melting point

Extensive properties

properties that do depend on the amount of sample present. EX: mass and volume

physical change

a substance changes its physical appearance but not its compositionIt is the same substance before and after the changeEX: Water freezingWater vaporizing

change of state

change from one physical state to anotherall are physical changes

chemical changes

AKA chemical reactiona substance is transformed into a chemically different substanceEX: Hydrogen burning. Combines with oxygen to form water.


A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.


A process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling pointsUSed for separating homogeneous mixturesEX: Boiling satwateer evaporates the water and keeps the salt


Putting a mixture into something that causes it to react and separate.

Explain how you can take advantage of the difference mixture's component's properties to separate it with an iron-gold ring

use a magnet to get the iron and separate it from the gold. Acids dissolve iron but not gold.

Name the increments of measure in the metric system:LengthMassTemperatureTimeAmount of substanceElectric currentLuminous intensity

Meter (m)Kilogram (kg)Kelvin (K)Second (s or sec)Mole (mole)Ampere (A or amp)Candela (cd)

Define each prefixPetaTeraGigaMegaKiloDeciCentiMilli MicroNanoPicoFemto AttoZepto

Peta 10^15 PTera 10^12 TGiga 10^9 GMega 10^6 M Kilo 10^3 kDeci 10^-1 dCenti 10^-2 c Milli 10^-3 mMicro 10^-6 ┬ÁNano 10^-9 nPico 10^-12 pFemto 10^-15 f Atto 10^-18 aZepto 10^-21 z

Many properties of matter of quantitative which means?

associetated with numbers

Metric system

units used for scientific measurements

SI Units

Preffered metric units of science

1 kg equal to

2.2 lbs


a measure of the hotness or coldness of an object.

Heat flow

Physical property that determines the direction of heat flow. Heat flow always goes from higher temp to lower temp.The influx of heat we feel when we touch a hot object is meaning the object is hotter than our hand.

Celcius scale

The temperature scale on which zero and 100 are the temperatures at which water freezes and boilsabsolute zero I s -273.15

Kelvin scale

the SI temperature scalefreezing point is 273.15 K

absolute zero

The temperature at which no more energy can be removed from matter0 Kelvin

Formula for relation between Kelvin and Celsius


Farenheit scale

temperature scale in USFreeze 32Boils 212

2 formulas for relationship between Farenheit and Celsius

C=5/9 (F-32) F=9/5 (C)+32

Derived Unit

obtained by multiplication or division of one or more of the base units. Define the equation for a quantity and subsitute it with the appropriate base units

The derived unit for volume


metric unit of volume not an SI


what does a liter equal

1 dm^3



Distinguish density and weight

density is the amount of mass per volume and weight is how heavy something is which is from how much density an object has.

derived unit for Joules

1 kg-m^2/s^2

Kinetic energy formula



Amount of energy needed to raise temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree C

how many joules is 1 calorie


difference between calorie and Calorie

A Calorie is 1000 calories.

what is the next best idea for energy consumption

solar panelsthey have gotten cheaper over the years

What do solar panels have now that make them cheaper, why

halide perovskites- nearly as aefficient as single crystal silicon solar cells and cheaper to make


infectious proteins that can be muatated to be dangerousdestroy neuronsleads to alzheimers and Parkisons

What compound can deal with prions


How does chemistry help art

chemicals can be used to restore worn downa nd ruined paintings

Explain how chemistry was used to remove polymer coatings on Mayan Ruins

An aqueous solution disolves the polymers into very small particels and gets rid of them


Anything that ocupies space and has mass. Physical material of the universe


any distinguishing characterstic that allows us to recognize a tyope of matter and distinguish it from other types


A pure substance made of only one kind of atom


infinitesmall bulding block of matter


a chemical combination of two or more atoms

What has chemistry allowed us to make and improve on technology-wise

Light emitting duodes LEDsfarmesueticalsfertilizerspesticiedesplasticssolar panelsbuilding materials

What is the chemical industry worth and how many people does it employ

800 Billion800 Thousand14% if all US exports

3 main areas chemists work in

Industry, Government, AcadamiaIndustry: lab chemists, making new products, analyzing materials, asissting customers in their products. Some are even managers or company directors, quality control, cooking, fireworks, wood industry (wood glue), paint indusrtyGovernment: National instutes of health, Department of energy, Envrormental proetction agency, ammunitions, lawyer, phorensic scientists, CDC, Institue of Health, DEA, FDA, Department of energy, environment protection agency.Acadama: teachingAlso can do medicine, biomedical research, information sceince, envirormental work, technical sales, government regulartory agencies, patent law, biochemistry, astronomy,

3 things chemists do fundamentally

Make new types of matterEX: plastic used in milk over glass- because plastic was used in the space racemeausre properties of matterdevelop models that explain and/or predict the properties of matter

What temperature does water BEGIN to turn to ice


Hetero meansHomo means


opposite of matter


farthest thing ont he energy side of the matter-energy scale

gamma radiation

gamma radiation

farthest thing ont he energy side of the matter-energy scalecan pass straight through tissuevery dangerouscan decay tissue like a mircrowave

what are atoms made of


why study chemistry? What are it's benefits

Public concernsEX: Healthcare- coviddesposal of pharmesudicalsnatural rescources- energy is not just environmental concern but political as well-- think through political ideas---pulling out of Middle East abandons fossil fuelsconsumers-understand what products do and what those chemicals areEX: pesticide used on apples was dangerous- government banned it- lead to loss of multiple apple farm buisnesses- bought from other coountries-- most people don't know it still has that same pesticide

How can chemistry help economists

Economists can use the amount of sulferic acid as an early warning aign our GDP increasing or decreasing- more sulferic acid e,ans the GDP is getting higher

what must chemists do if they work for colleges

they must continue to write and publish

liquid to solid


solid to liquid


liquid to gas


gas to liquid


solid to gas


gas to solid


Rules of Observation

1. cannot state identity- observing candle burning cant say you see a candle- YES: color, state, etc

Why do scientists repeat experiments

to try and siprove it- orove its correctness

How to tell if somthieng is a chemical or physical property

Ask self: Do i need to change it's indentity to see the property- yes: chemical- no: Physical

List and describe physical properties

Melting Point- temp at which a substance changes from solid to liquid- indicates temperature- 0 Celsius is the metling point of water- It's a Quantivtive propertyBoiling Point- temp at which a substance changes from liquid to gas- indicates temp- 100 C is the boiling point for waterHardness- ho easily something ca be broken or scrachedColor- type of colorTWO MOST IMPORTANT PHYSICAL P{ROPERTIES COLOR AND STATE OF MATTERTexture: Powdery, crtyaline, sandy- qualitive propertyDensity- mass/volumeqantitiveMagnetism- qualitiveShape- qualitiveMalleabikity- shape without breaking- qualitiveductility- you can draw substance into a thin wire without breaking- qualitive propertyLuster- how bright something isrefractive index- how much you can see through itconductivity- electric conductor

LIst and describe chemical properties

Oxidizing ability- bond with oxygencombustability- can it burn/catch on fire- NOT EXPLODEChemical Stability- being able to stay stable without reaction- how long can it last without changong- some chemicals change more than othersToxcicity- how dangerous something is to the environment- EX: DDT was making bird eggs more brittleChemical Bonds- Bodning type- covakent, ionic, metallic- NOT HYDROGEN BONDSReactitvity with any substance

List intensive properties

densitycolortextureboiling pointmelting pointconductivity

list extensive properties


why is boiling point an intensive property

- no matter how much liquid, boiling point doesnt chnage- takes longer sometimes to make all liquid the boioliing pt

List physical changes

phase changesanything that changes the shape

list chemical changes

you will know a chemical change happened by making observations that let you know it happened: 1. Bubbles- production of a gas- 2 or more things go together to react and produce gas2. production of heat and/or light- 2 substances tgether get hotter or colder- light sometimes produced- any fire=chemical changeGlowsticks reaction same as fireflies3. unexpected color change- 2 substances combine to make a new color4. Precipitate formed- solid is formed from the intruduction fo a second liquid hitting a new liquid- solid is a precipitate- if a liquid looks murky, a preicpitate is formed


a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another


how closley individual measurements agree with the correct or "true" value

what are precision measuremnts expressed in

standard deviation- reflects how much individual measurements differ from average- multiple similar measuremnts give us more confidence- doesnr always mean correct rseults

what do we do with the plus/minus sign on uncertain measurements

we get rid of it because all meausrements are uncertain

significant figures

all digits of measured quality including uncertain ones

How to count the number of significant figures

read left to right, when you hit the first nonzero number start countingZeros between nonzero digist are always significantzeros at the beginning of a number are never significantzeros at the end of a number are signficinat fi the number contains a decimal pointProblesma rise when there are zeros after the digits but no decimal place. Theya re assumed to not be significant. Exponential notation indicates whether theyre significant

RUle when carrying measurefd qualities throigj calculations

The least certain measurements limits the certainty of the calculated quantity and thereby determines the number of signifanct figures in the final answerthe final asnwer should only have 1 digit

rule for the final answer with subjtartcion and addition

the rrsult has the same number of decimal places as the measurement with the fewest deciml places when the results contain mroe than the correct number o f significant figures, it must be rounded off.

rule for the final answer with multiplication and division

the result contains the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the fewest significant figures when the result contains more, it must be rounded off

main task of chemists and biochemists

unravel complexities of chemical compounds and reduce them to their simple individual components.

WHat is chromatology derived from

chromate- colorgraphon-write

what was chromatlogy's orginal use

separate pigments in leaves, berries, and natural dyes

what has chromatography been used for over the last 50 eyars

separation fo roganic and bilogical compoinds

who first reported chromatograpy. Doing what?

Pliny the elderseparation fo dyes on papyrus


separates liquid compounds into indiidual components based on their specific affinity for a solid surface ad specific solubiliyu for different solvents.

Paper chromatography

has a chromatography apper that has cellulose fibers in the chromatography paperdeveloper is the spolution that is palced in the bottom of the mixing chamber. the paper with teh dveeloper is placed in th developing chamber where abosprtiona dn capilary actions take the developer up and separate it on how high somethng is taken uppaper acts like wick and takes the solvent updepending on how attracted the developer is to the paper, it ill move accordingly

Rf value

Distance travelled by substance / distance travelled by solvent

How is chromatography used in government junk

Bureau of Alchohol, Tobacco, and Firearms created a national repository for inks which now resides in the US secret service foresnic lab

How did chromtography help in a court case

In the tax evasion case of US vs Sloan, one of the pieces of evidence ws a 4 page document agreeing with an anonomous clientnotes from 1958 and 1966 confirm thispaper chromatogrphy was used on the ink used to signt hem and the ink traced back to a pen type that was made after 1958 and 1966, so it was nto signed at the time. Inkw as made by the Ciba-Geigy Chemical Corperation which was in 1960, so it dispoved it. successful convitcion of taxevasiona s a result.