microbio test 2


mostly inherited or present before infection


develops in response to infection

immune system

functions to recognize and destroy/eliminate foreign antigens

nonspecific examples

skin and enzymes

specific examples

B or T cells, antibodies


skin, mucous membranes, stomach acidity


they have granules in them that are used as an offensive mechanism that allows them to blast/kill off organisms


make B cell and t-helper cells and t-cytoxic cells

primary immune structures

thymus and bone marrow


matures T cells

bone marrow

matures B cells

secondary immune structures

lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids, peyer's patches

professional phagocytes

neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, they are positioned strategically around the body


One organism benefits and the other is harmed


one organism benefits and the other is unaffected ex: normal flora


both organisms benefit


multiple organisms living amongst each other

vertical recombination

sexual reproduction passes on genetic change from parents to offspring

horizontal recombination

occurs between a donor cell and a recipient


moving DNA from donor to recipient


cell to cell contact


mixed intact cells with DNA


ability to cause disease


how severe the disease will measure


occurring occasionally and unpredictableex: tetanus


found at steady level Ex: the common cold


sudden increase in morbidity and mortality in one areaex: plague


worldwide across continentsex: influenza, HIV

common source

involves contact with a single source


spread person to person


Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.

Defensive Virulence Factors

allows the microbe to escape/hideex: capsules (gram -)

offensive virulence factors

sent out to try and attack/fightex: endotoxins and exotoxins, enzymes (gram +)


proteins synthesized by the microbe and secreted into the host's tissues


in the outer cell membrane


a site in nature in which microbes survive and they may be transmitted

nonliving reservoirs

soil and water

active carriers

individuals who have a microbial disease

healthy carriers

have no symptoms and may unwittingly pass the disease on to others


Diseases transmitted from animals to humans


Animals that carry pathogens from person to personex: mosquitoes

direct transmission

horizontal and vertical

horizontal direct transmission

person to person

vertical diret transmission

mother to offspring

indirect transmission

vehicle borne, vector borne, airborne

vehicle born indirect transmission

food, water, fomites

vector borne indirect transmission

insects, fleas, ticks


aerosols of water or dust particles

nosocomial infection

hospital acquired infection


infectious proteins

Fungi characteristics

1. Heterotrophic2. Extracellular Digestion3. Chitin-Based Cell wall4. Most fungi are made up of filaments called Hyphae

Protozoans characteristics

- eukaryotic, single celled, move by flagella , cilia or ameoboid motion

Virus characteristics

1. Smaller in size2. Require a living host to grow3. Do not multiply in foods

Stages of virus reproduction

attachment, penetration, replication, assembly, lysis

lytic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses

lysogenic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA

natural active immunization

Person acquires immunity by surviving the disease itself and producing antibodies to the disease-causing organism

artificial active immunity

ses a vaccine to provoke a humoral (antibody) immune response as a future protective measure

Live attenuated vaccines

Live pathogen, but weakened. May cause minor illness in some cases.

Killed/inactivated vaccines

Virulent microbes are heat- or chemically-killed, less effective, no risk of infection, and need booster shots


inactivated exotoxins used in vaccines

New and Experimental Vaccines

recombinant DNA-vaccine & DNA-vaccine