Anatomy test 1


Towards the head, or above


Towards the feet, or below


front, or in front of


Back or at the back of


Toward the side of the body, or away from the midline of the body


Toward the mid line of the body


Closer to the top of the limb


Closer toward the bottom or end of a limb


Lying face upwards


Lying face downwards

Sagittal plane

an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.

Transverse Plane

divides the body into superior and inferior parts

Coronal plane

divides body into front and back

Blood Pressure set point


Temperature set point


Chemical Level

1. atoms combine to form molecules

Cellular Level

2. molecules combine to form smooth muscle cells

Tissue Level

3. Tissues consist of similar types of cells

Organ Level

4. Organs are made up of different types of tissues

System Level

5. related organs with a common function

integumentary System

organs- Skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glandsfunctions- Protect tissues, regulate body temperature, support sensory receptors

Skeletal System

organs- Bones, ligaments, cartilagesfunctions- Provide framework, protect soft tissues, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells, store inorganic salts

Muscular System

organs- muscles functions- Cause movements, maintain posture, produce body heat

nervous system

organs- Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organsfunctions- Detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands

Endocrine system

organs- Glands that secrete hormones (pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus)functions- Control metabolic activities of body structures

cardiovascular system

organs- Heart, arteries, capillaries, veinsfunctions- Move blood through blood vessels and transport substances throughout body

lymphatic system

organs- Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleenfunctions- Return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection

digestive system

organs- Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestinesfunctions- Receive, break down, and absorb food; eliminate unabsorbedmaterial

Respritory system

organs- Nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungsfunctions- Intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood

urinary system

organs- Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethrafunctions- Remove wastes from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and eliminate urine

reproductive system

organs- Male: scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal, vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penisFemale; ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulvafunctions- male: Produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tractfemale: Produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo, and function in birth process

what purpose do the membranes that line the outer surface of organs and the inner surface of cavities serve?

secrete a lubricating fluid, called serous fluid, to prevent internal organs from being rubbed raw.