Natural Rights (Topic 1.1) *
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property. Rights are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are universal.
Limited Government (Topic 1.1) ****
A principle of constitutional government; a government whose powers are defined and limited by a constitution.
Political democracy (Topic 1.1)
is a form of government in which the people have the authority to choose their governing legislation (laws).
Popular Sovereignty (Topic 1.1)***
The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs.
Republicanism (Topic 1.1) ***
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on the consent of the governed.
Social Contract Theory (Topic 1.1) *
The belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the declaration of independence.
Republic (Topic 1.2) **
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Elite Democracy (Elitism) (Topic 1.2) **
Political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small group of individuals or institutions.
Participatory Democracy ** (Topic 1.2)
is a model of democracy in which citizens have the power to decide directly on policy and politicians are responsible for implementing those policy decisions.
Pluralist Democracy (Pluralism) (Topic 1.2) ***
is a model of democracy in which no one group dominates politics and organized groups compete with each other to influence policy.
Representative Democracy (Topic 1.1)
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Constitutional democracy (Topic 1.1)
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections.
Democracy (Topic 1.2) *
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state. Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections. Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections.
Direct Democracy (Topic 1.2) **
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. Founders feared this would lead to "mob rule
Majority rule (Topic 1.2) **
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority.
Unitary System (Topic 1.2) *
Type of government that centralizes all the powers of government into one central authority.
Articles of Confederation (Topic 1.3) **
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Antifederalists (Topic 1.3) **
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally. They were concern that the Constitution did not specifically enumerate protected civil liberties. Led by Jefferson
Decentralized republic (Topic 1.3)
favoring greater state authority rather than national authority
Factions (Topic 1.3) **
Groups (today known as interest groups), which according to James Madison arose from the unequal distribution wealth and had the potential to influence government action in their own self-interest and potentially cause instability in government.
Federalists (Topic 1.3)**
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures. Led by Madison & Hamilton.
Liberty (Topic 1.3) ***
freedom of choice and from government control.
Express Powers (Topic 1.4)**
Powers the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government. AKA Enumerated powers
Reserved Powers (Topic 1.4)**
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people. (10th Amendment)
Implied powers (Topic 1.4)**
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
Concurrent Powers (Topic 1.4)**
powers shared by the national and state governments
Exclusive Powers (Topic 1.4)**
powers that can only be used by the national government
Federal Government (Topic 1.4)**
A form of government in which powers are divided between a central government and several local governments.
Shays's Rebellion (Topic 1.4)**
This MA conflict caused criticism of the Articles of Confederation; weak govt; increased calls for a Constitutional Convention to revise the Articles.
Declaration of Independence (1776) (Topic 1.1) ****
The fundamental document establishing the US as an independent nation, adopted on July 4, 1776. It declared the 13 colonies independent from Britain, offered reasons for the separation laid out the principles for which the Revolution was fought