1.1 The Study of Life: Biology

___________ is the study of all forms of life


_______ is home to an incredible diversity of life


The __________ includes all living things and all the places they are found


Every part of the _______ is connected with every other part


The biosphere includes many _________________ environments

environments, land

The biosphere includes many environments ___________ and ________ environmentsPortions of the _______________

saltwater, freshwater, atmosphere

___________ is the variety of life


Biodiversity increases from the _________ to the _________

poles, equator

Biodiversity is ________ in areas with consistently warm temperatures


A __________ is one particular type of living thing


Because they are so similar to each other, members of a species can _______________

interbreed to reproduce

There are about ___________ different living species have been identified

2 million

__________ estimate that tens of millions of species remain to be ___________

Biologist, discovered

Over half of the known species are ________


__________ is the scientific study of all forms of ______ and their interactions with their environment

Biology, life

Biology is also called ___________

life science

All branches of biology are unified by 6 themes:

Cell structure and function, stability and homeostasis, reproduction and inheritance, evolution, interdependence, matter, energy, and organization

Many _____________ studied biology

ancient civilizations and

________ used herbal medicines


__________ developed agricultural techniques

South Americans

__________ practiced mummification


_________ are credited with originating the basic principles of modern science


Greeks__________ established a school of medicine


Greeks_________ is credited with establishing the first classification system for living things


_______________ connect concepts from many fields of biology

Unifying themes

All organisms _______ certain characteristics


An ___________ is any individual living thing


All organisms are made of ____________

one or more cells

All need energy for ____________


All organisms respond to their __________


All organisms have _____ that they pass on to __________

DNA, offspring

The ________ is the basic unit of life


__________ organisms consist of only _____ cell

Unicellular, one

___________ organisms consist of more than _____ cell

Multicellular, one

The cells of multicellular organisms undergo ___________ to become different types of cells


Although they are different types of cells, they are ________ because they have cell membranes and contain DNA


A _________ is an organized group of interacting parts


A ______ is a system of ___________ and processes

cell, chemicals

A ___________ includes organs that interact

body system

An _________ includes living and non living things that interact


_____________ study many __________ systems

Biologists, different

Structure determines __________


____________ with different structures perform different functions


____________ cells have a different structure and function than stomach muscle cells

Heart muscle

_______________ have different anatomical structures with different functions

Different species

Organisms must __________ homeostasis to survive in diverse environments


___________ is the maintenance of constant internal conditions (temperature, water content, food intake)


Homeostasis is usually maintained through ___________ feedback


______________ systems return a condition to its normal (set) point

Negative feedback

____________ and __________ can help maintain homeostasis

Behaviors, adaptations

All ___________ produce new organisms like themselves in the process of ___________

organisms, reproduction

In reproduction, organisms transmit __________ information in the form of a large molecule called ___________ (DNA) to offspring

hereditary, deoxyribonucleic acid

A short segment of DNA that contains the code for the development of a specific trait is a _____


In ______________, hereditary information from two organisms of the same species is combined

sexual reproduction

In _____________, a single cell divides into two cells each with an identical copy of the genetic code

asexual reproduction

____________ explains the unity and diversity of life


Evolution is the _________ in living things over time The genetic makeup of a population of a species changes


Evolution can occur through ____________ of adaptations

natural selection

_____________ are beneficial inherited traits that are passed to future generations


___________ is also driven by competition among organisms for resources needed to survive (food, water, shelter)


The survival of an organism with favorable traits causes a ___________ in the population over generation. This is known as _______________

gradual change, descent with modifications

To fully understand the _____________ - scientists study the interaction of organisms with one another and their ____________ (ecology)

biological world, environment

Scientists also study _____________ (ecosystems)

environmental communities

To survive, organisms need __________, ___________, and _________ from the environment

nutrients, gases, water

The stability of the environment depends upon the ______________ -of the organisms in the environment

healthy functioning

Almost all energy on Earth comes from the ______


Through _____________, most plants and some unicellular organisms capture energy from the sun and change it into a useable form of energy


_________ obtain energy by producing their own food (plants, bacteria)


_________ obtain energy by consuming autotrophs (animals, fungi)


All living things use _______ in a process called ____________

energy, metabolism

_____________ is the sun of all chemical processed that occur in an organism


The energy is needed for __________, _________, and __________

growth, repair, movement

Living things have a high degree of order within the ___________ parts of an organism

internal and external

In cells specific cell structures within carry out _______________ (membrane, nucleus)

specific functions

Like ________ group together to function as ____________

cells, tissues

Like _________ group together to function as __________

tissues, organs

Like ________ group together to function as __________

organs, systems

Systems form ____________

an organism