anatomy and physiology

integumentary system

- Forms the external body covering (skin) and includes hair and fingernails- Waterproofs the body- Cushions and protects deeper tissue from injury- Produces vitamin D with the help of sunlight- Excretes salt in perspiration- Helps regulate body temp.- Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

skeletal system

- consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints- Provides muscle attachment for movement- Protects vital organs- Site of blood cell formation- Stores minerals

Muscular System

- skeletal muscles contract or shorten, -produces movement of bones

nervous system

- fast-acting control system- consist of brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors-Responds to internal and external stimuli-Sensory receptors detect changes-Messages are sent to the central nervous system- Central nervous system assesses information and actives effectors (muscles and glands)

endocrine system

-Secretes chemical molecules, called hormones, into the body- Body functions controlled by hormones include: Growth, reproduction, use of nutrients-Endocrine glands include: Pituitary gland, thyroid and parathyroids, adrenal glands, thymus, pancreas, pineal gland, ovaries and testes

cardiovascular system

-Include heart and blood vessels

lymphatic system

-Includes lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymphoid organs- Complements the cardiovascular system by returning leaked fluids back to bloodstream- Lymph nodes and other lymphoid organs cleanse the blood- Houses white blood cells, which are involved in immunity

respiratory system

-Includes the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs- Gases are exchanged with the blood through air sacs in the lungs- supplies the body with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide from the blood

digestive system

- Includes the oral cavity (mouth), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum- Breaks down food- Allows for nutrient absorption into blood- Eliminates indigestible material as feces

urinary system

- Includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra- Eliminates toxic wastes- Maintains acid-base balance- Regulates water and electrolyte balance- Helps regulate normal blood pressure