Wildlife 340 Exam


individuals/area sampledMost sophisticated population estimate


Number of individuals


UnitlessMust be comparede.g. fatty acid scent tab coyote tracking


Lease sophisticated population estimate

Catch effort: CE (%) = A * 100 / [T-(S/2)]

A= abundanceT= trap nightsS= sprungEvery time you check a trap, you have a __% chance of catching an animal

UTM: C = sqrt abs value (y1-y2) + (x1-x2)

Universal Transverse MercatorActual x1 y1Estimated x2 y2

How to improve telemetry accuracy

1. More points2. Get closer3. Work faster4. Better angles (90-120)


# plots with species / total # plots

Average dbh

# / # trees

What is the average volume of a log?

(length) (pi) [(diameter/2)^2]

How open is the canopy?

Group average / number of plots


Use out of proportion to availability


% plot covered


% twigs browsed

How do we know what an animal likes to eat?

Stomach analysisObservationProvide foodBrowse survey

Who cares what an animals likes to eat?

Hunters (candy food - e.g. corn --> waterfowl --> not nutritious)Health of population (eating selected vs avoided foods)Landscaping (e.g. airports, roadsides)HabitatWinter deer ecology (cover, insulation, snow build up)

Selected for

Available < useCake


Available = usemeh salad

Selected against/avoided

Available > usepickles

Basal plateau

Add y values up to inflection point (+0)

Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index: H' = -sum [pi * ln pi]

H' = information indexpi = # individuals / totalCompare to diversity index

J = H' / ln R

J = evenness indexR= # of species1 = perfectly even

Population Estimate Assumptions

Population is closedEqual probability of captureMarks do not affect mortalityMarks are retained and recognized

Vegetation Sampling Techniques

Fixed areaLine interceptPoint centered

What is the difference between active and passive calling surveys?

Active: howl surveyPassive: songbird point counts

Does distance sampling underestimate or overestimate the population size?

Underestimate, because you don't hear every bird that calls, and some birds might not be calling if you're there

Trap Nights

1 trap checked 1 time

How to fix a Sherman trap

If it goes off too easily, pull the notch closer to you and vise versa