#### SPI Mock Exam 2

❤ How many Hertz is 3 MHz?A. 3,000,000B. 3,000C. 333D. 0.003

A. 3,000,000

❤ How much bigger is a billion than a million?A. 10 timesB. 100 timesC. 1,000 timesD. 500 times

C. 1,000 times

❤ How many millimeters are contained in a jar filled with 5 liters of fluid?A. 5B. 5,000C. 500D. 0.005

B. 5,000

❤ How many liters are in 80 ml of fluid?A. 8B. 80C. 0.008D. 0.080

D. 0.080

What are the units of the following parameters?Wavelength Frequency Intensity Propagation SpeedPeriodPower

Wavelength. Millimeters Frequency. HertzIntensity. Watts/cm^3Propagation Speed. meters/secPeriod. SecondPower. Watts

Does the medium or sound source determine the following parameters?Wavelength. Frequency. Intensity. Propagation Speed. Period. Power.

Wavelength. BothFrequency. Sound Source Intensity. Sound Source Propagation Speed. Medium Period. Sound Source Power. Sound Source

Using a particular ultrasound system, which of the following cannot be changed by the operator?Wavelength Amplitude Intensity Propagation Speed PeriodPower

Wavelength. cannotAmplitude. can Intensity. can Propagation Speed. cannotPeriod. cannotPower. can

Using a particular system, Which of the following cannot be changed by the operator?Wavelength Amplitude Intensity Propagation Speed PeriodPower

Wavelength. Cannot Amplitude. CanIntensity. CanPropagation Speed. Cannot Period. CannotPower. Can

(True or False) Sound is a transverse, mechanical wave.

False. Sound is mechanical, but it is a longitudinal wave

(True or False) A wave with a frequency of 15 MHz is audible.

False. Ultrasound is defined as a wave with a frequency of greater than 20,000 Hertz.

(True or False) A wave with a frequency 15 MHz is audible?

False. Ultrasound is defined as a wave with a frequency of greater than 20,000 Hertz. (This question ask about 15 million Hz)

The power in a beam is 1 watt and the area is 5cm^2, What is the beam's intensity?A. 5 W/cm^2B. 1 W/cm^2C. 0.2 W/cm^2D. 1 watt

C. 0.2 W/cm^2

If intensity remains the same while the power is doubled, What happens to the beam area?A. QuadrupledB. DoubledC. HalvedD. unchanged

B. Doubled

A sound beam travels a total of 10 cm in 2 seconds, What is the speed of the sound in this medium?A. 10 cm/secB. 2 cm/secC. 5 cm/secD. 0.2 cm/sec

C. 5 cm/sec

(True or False) Speed increases as frequency increases?

False

What happens to the speed of sound in a medium when the bulk modules increases?A. FasterB. SlowerC. remain the same

A. Faster, a bulk modulus is another way to say stiffness

The effects of ultrasound upon tissue called?

Bioeffects

Which of the following waves will have the shortest wavelength?A. Low frequency traveling in a fast medium B. Low frequency traveling in a slow medium C. High frequency traveling in a fast medium D. High frequency traveling in a slow medium

D. High frequency traveling in a slow medium

Which of the following characteristics will create the fastest speed of sound?A. High density, high stiffness B. Low density, high stiffness C. High density, low stiffness D. Low density, low stiffness

B. Low density, high stiffness

Which of the following waves is ultrasonic and least useful in diagnostic imaging?A. 8 MHzB. 2.5 MHzC. 18,000 HzD. 24,000 HzE. 3,000,000 Hz

D. 24,000 Hz

Which of the following waves is ultrasonic and most useful in diagnostic imaging?A. 2,455,000 HzB. 100 MHzC. 2.4 kHz D. 14,000 Hz

A. 2,455,000 Hz

Which of the following waves have the longest wavelength?A. Low frequency B. Low amplitude C. High frequency D. High intensity

A. Low frequency

(True or False) If the amplitude of a wave is increased to 3 times it's orginal value, the intensity is only 6 times?

False

(True or False) If the power of a wave is halved, the intensity is reduced to one-fourth it's orginal value?

False

❤If frequency of sound is doubled, What happens to wavelength

Wavelength is halved

____________ is the time from the start of a pulse to the end of that pulse?

Pulse Duration

___________ is the time from the start of a pulse to the start of the next pulse?

Pulse Repetition Period

PRF is the reciprocal of _________?

Pulse Repetition Period (PRP)

When Changing the imaging depth, Which of the following parameters does the operator also change?A. PRFB. Duty FactorC. Propagation Speed D. PRPE. Spatial Pulse Length

A. PRFB. Duty FactorD. PRP

The speed of a 5 MHz continuous wave is 1.8km/sec. The wave is then pulsed with duty factor of 0.5, What is the new propagation speed?

The propagation speed for pulsed and continuous US is the same and depend only upon the medium through, which the sound travels. The new propagation speed is exactly the same as the old propagation speed, 1.8km/sec.

Arrange the following from shortest to longest.A. Pulse Duration B. PeriodC. Pulse Repetition Period D. Listening Time

B. PeriodA. Pulse Duration D. Listening TimeC. Pulse Repetition Period

What is the duty factor of the following 4 signals?

A. 0.5, the system is talking half the time and listening half the time B. 0.0, the system is not not transmitting C. 0.333, the system is transmitting 1/3 of the time D. 1.0, the system is transmitting all of the time

Which of the following frequency best describes line A?A. Frequency B. PRPC. PeriodD. Pulse Duration E. Duty Factor F. Amplitude

D. Duty Factor

Which of the following best describe line B?A. Frequency B. PRPC. PeriodD. Pulse Duration E. Duty Factor F. Amplitude

F. Amplitude

Which of the following best describes line D?A. Frequency B. PRPC. PeriodD. Pulse Duration E. Duty Factor F. Amplitude

C. Period

Which of the following best describe line E?A. Frequency B. PRPC. PeriodD. Listening TimeE. Peak to peak amplitude F. Amplitude

D. Listening Time

Which of the following best describe line F?A. Frequency B. Peak to peak amplitude C. PeriodD. Pulse Duration E. Duty Factor F. Amplitude

B. Peak to peak amplitude

Which of the following best describe line A?A. Frequency B. PRPC. PeriodD. Spatial pulse length E. Duty factor F. Amplitude

D. Spatial pulse length

Which of the following best describe line D?A. Frequency B. PRPC. Wavelength D. Pulse Duration E. Duty factorF. Amplitude

C. Wavelength

A Sonographer adjusts the depth of view of an ultrasound scan from 8cm to 16cm. What happens to each of the following parameters? Do they increase, decrease, or remain the same?PeriodFrequency Wavelength SpeedAmplitude PowerIntensity Pulse duration PRFDuty factorSpatial pulse length Pulse Repetition period

Period. remains the sameFrequency. remains the sameWavelength. remains the sameSpeed. remains the sameAmplitude. remains the samePower. remains the sameIntensity. remains the samePulse duration. remains the samePRF. remains the sameDuty factor. decreasesSpatial pulse length. remains the samePulse Repetition period. increases

A Sonographer is using a 3MHz transducer and changes to a 6MHz transducer. The imaging depth remains unchanged. What will happen to each of the following parameters? Do they increase, decrease, or remain the same?PeriodFrequency Wavelength SpeedAmplitude PowerIntensity PRFPRP

Period. DecreasesFrequency. IncreasesWavelength. DecreasesSpeed. remains the sameAmplitude. remains the samePower. remains the sameIntensity. remains the samePRF. remains the samePRP. remains the same

A Sonographer is using a 3MHz transducer and increases the output power in order to visualize structures that are positioned deeper in the patient. NO other controls are adjusted. What happens to each of the following parameters? Do they increase,decrease, or remain the same?PeriodFrequency Wavelength SpeedAmplitude PowerIntensity Pulse duration PRFDuty factor Spatial pulse length PRP

Period. remains the sameFrequency. remains the sameWavelength. remains the sameSpeed. remains the sameAmplitude. increasesPower. increasesIntensity. increasesPulse duration. remains the samePRF. remains the sameDuty factor. remains the sameSpatial pulse length. remains the samePRP. remains the same

What is the duty factor of a 7MHz continuous wave sound beam at a depth of 10 cm?

1.0 The duty factor of continuous wave sound is always 1

A reduction of intensity to one-half of it's original value is ______dB?

-3dB

A drop in intensity to one-quarter of it's original value is ______ dB?

-6dB

-10dB means that the intensity is reduced to _________ of it's orginal value?

One-tenth

DB is a mathematical representation with a ________ scale?A. Multiplicative B. Division C. Longitudinal D. Logarithmic

D. Logarithmic

(True or False) We need intensity to calculate decibels?

False

Every 3dB means that intensity will _______?

Double

Every 10dB means that the intensity will ______?

Increase 10 times

If the final intensity is more than the initial intensity than the gain in db is ________(+/-)?

Positive

If the initial intensity is less than the final intensity than the gain in dB is ______(+/-)?

Positive

The relative change in a sound beam's intensity is measured in ______?A. Watts/cm^2B. dBC. WattsD. Pascals

B. dB Notice that the question asked for a relative change

Which of the following is related to greater attenuation?A. Long distance, low frequency B. Long distance, high frequency C. Short distance, low frequency D. Short distance, high frequency

B. Long distance, high frequency Sound attenuation more when traveling a long distance. High frequency sound attenuated more than low frequency sound

Which of the following results in the wave with the highest intensity?A. Long distance, low frequency B. Long distance, high frequency C. Short distance, low frequency D. Short distance, high frequency

C. Short distance, low frequency Sound attenuated least (is stronger) when traveling a short distance. Low frequency sound attenuated less than high frequency sound.

Which of the following results in the least attenuation?A. 4 MHz sound, path length 2cmB. 4 MHz sound, path length 8cmC. 6 MHz sound, path length 8cmD. 6MHz sound, path length 4cm

A. 4MHz sound, path length 2cmattenuation is least with a low frequency and short path length.

Which of the following results in the most attenuation?A. 4 MHz sound, path length 2cmB. 4 MHz sound, path length 8cmC. 6 MHz sound, path length 8cmD. 6MHz sound, path length 4cm

C. 6MHz sound, path length 8cmAttenuation is most with high frequency and long path length

Name the 3 components of attenuation. Which of these 3 components is the dominant contributor to attenuation?

Absorption, reflection, and scattering. Absorption attenuated sound the most

As the path length increases, attenuation of US in soft tissue __________?

Increases

Total attenuation in soft tissue is related to _______ and _________?

How far the wave travels (path length) and frequency of the sound

Attenuation in lung tissue ________ (less than, greater than, the same as) soft tissue?

Greater than

Attenuation in bone is _______ than soft tissue?

Greater than

Attenuation in air is _______ than soft tissue?

Much greater than

Attenuation in water is ________ than soft tissue?

Much less than

What are the units of attenuation?

Decibels (dB)

What is the relationship between propagation speed and the attenuation coefficient in soft tissue?

Speed and attenuation coefficient are UNRELATED

What is the relationship between US frequency and the attenuation coefficient in soft tissue?

In soft tissue, the attenuation coefficient in dB per centimeter is about 1/2 of the ultrasonic frequency in MHz

As the path length increases, the attenuation coefficient of US in soft tissue?

Remains the same

Acoustic impedance =_________x____________?

Impedance= density (kg/m^3) X propagation speed (m/s)

Impedance is important in ____ at boundaries.

Reflections

Which is better to use while examining a carotid artery, a 7.5 or 3.0 MHz transducer?

7.5 MHz, transducer is better because the higher frequency transducer produces the better images.

❤In soft tissue, attenuation coefficients is directly related to ________?

Frequency ( if frequency doubles, attenuation coefficient doubles)

❤ The amount of Rayleigh scattering is related to _________?

Frequency^4 ( if frequency doubles, Rayleigh scattering increases by a factor of 16)

A sound wave, with an intensity of 50 W/cm², strikes a boundary and is totally reflected. What is the:intensity reflection coefficient?A. 50W/cm^2B. 25W/cm^2C. 0W/cm^2D. 100%E. 0%

D. 100%

A sound wave, with an intensity of 50 W/cm², strikes a boundary and is totally reflected. What is the:intensity reflected intensity?A. 50W/cm^2B. 25W/cm^2C. 0W/cm^2D. 100%E. 0%

A. 50W/cm^2

The intensity transmission coefficient of sound is 99.9%, What % of sound is reflected back to the transducer?

0.1%

Which of these media has the greatest attenuation and the slowest speed?A. BoneB. TendonC. FatD. Air

D. Air

Which of these media has the greatest attenuation and fastest speed?A. BoneB. TendonC. LungD. FatE. Air

A. Bone

Which of the following mathematically describes the physics of refraction?A. Bernoulli's Principal B. Snell's LawC. Pouiseulle's LawD. Murphy's LawE. Bernoulli's Law

B. Snell's Law

Which of the following terms doesn't belong with the others?A. ObliqueB. NormalC. Perpendicular D. Orthogonal E. Ninety degrees

A. Oblique

Which of the following terms best describes a reflection arising from a rough boundary?A. Non-diffuseB. AbsoluteC. Rayleigh D. SmoothE. non-spacular

E. Non-spacular

A sound wave strikes a boundary between two media with different impedance. The angle of incidence is non-orthogonal. Which of the following statements is most correct?A. All of the sound will be reflected B. Some of the sound will be reflected C. Some of the sound will be refracted D. None of the sound will be refracted

C. Some of the sound will be refracted

❤ When a transducer is covered with a sterile cover with gel on the inside, What must the transducer avoid touching in order to create an image?A. GelB. WaterC. Talcum powder D. Sterile liquid E. Lubricating gel

C. Talcum powder

(True or False) If the frequency of the electrical excitation voltage of a pulsed wave transducer is 6MHz, the main or center frequency of the transducer is 6MHz?

False

(True or False) If the pulse repetition frequency of a transducer is increased, the frequency of US produced by the transducer remains the same?

True

(True or False) The diameter of the active element of a transducer helps to determine the frequency of the US produced by the transducer?

False

(True or False) If the frequency of electrical excitation voltage of a continuous wave transducer is 6MHz, the main or center frequency the transducer is 6MHz?

True

(True or False) Two piezoelectric crystal's are made from the same material. The thicker material will make a pulsed transducer with higher frequency?

False

(True or False) For a pulsed wave transducer, if the PZT crystal thickness is double, then the frequency of sound is halved?

True

(True or False) The normal propagation speed for piezoelectric material is approximately three to five times greater than soft tissue?

True

(True or False) The acoustic impedance of the matching layer equals the acoustic impedance of skin?

False

(True or False) A broadband transducer is more characteristic than a narrow bandwidth for imaging transducers.

True

(True or False) A very high "Q" factor transducer is more common than low "Q" factor for diagnostic imaging?

False

The impedance of a transducer active element is 1,900,000 rayls and for the skin is 1,400,000 rayls. What is an acceptable impedance for the matching layer?A. 1,200,000 raylsB. 1,400,000 raylsC. 1,726,000 raylsD. 1,950,000 rayls

C. 1,726,000 rayls

Which PZT crystal's will make a pulsed wave transducer with the highest frequency? A. 3,000 m/s, 3 mm thickness B. 4,000 m/s, 2 mm diameter C. 3,800 m/s, 3 mm thickness D. 5,000 m/s, 1.5 mm diameter

D. 5,000 m/s, 1.5 mm diameter

(True or False) The damping material in a transducer acts to?Increase the sensitivity Increase the spatial pulse length Decrease the pulse duration Improve the system lateral resolution Improve the system longitudinal resolution Narrow the bandwidth Decrease the quality factor

Increase the sensitivity. FalseIncrease the spatial pulse length FalseDecrease the pulse duration TrueImprove the system lateral resolutionFalse Improve the system longitudinal resolution TrueNarrow the bandwidth FalseDecrease the quality factorTrue

With a pulsed wave transducer, Wich of the following occurs if the PZT thickness is halved?A. Increased the pulse length B. Frequency is doubled C. Frequency is halved

B. Frequency is doubled

With a pulsed wave transducer, Which of the following occurs if the PZT thickness is doubled?A. Increase the pulse length B. Frequency is doubled C. Frequency is halved

C. Frequency is halved

Which of the following does not fit with the others?A. BroadbandB. Backing MaterialC. Short pulseD. Good lateral resolution E. Low Q

D. Good lateral resolution

Which of the following has the same meaning as transducer diameter?A. Crystal thickness B. Ceramic shapeC. ApertureD. PZT thickness

C. Aperture

Which of the following determines the frequency of sound created by a pulsed wave transducer?A. Crystal thickness and impedance B. Speed of sound in ceramic and diameter C. Speed of sound and density of the ceramic D. Thickness and speed of sound ceramic

D. Thickness and speed of sound ceramic

Which of the following determines the focal length of a sound beam?A. Crystal thickness and impedance B. Speed of sound in ceramic and diameter C. Speed of sound and density of the ceramicD. Diameter of ceramic and frequency of sound

D. Diameter of ceramic and frequency of sound

Which of the following transducers has the shallowest focus?A. 4MHz, 4mm crystal diameter B. 6MHz, 4mm crystal diameter C. 4MHz, 6mm crystal diameter D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

A. 4MHz, 4mm crystal diameter

Which of the following has the shallower focus?A. Lowest frequency, largest crystal diameter B. Highest frequency, largest crystal diameter C. Lowest frequency, smallest crystal diameter D. Highest frequency, smallest crystal diameter

C. Lowest frequency, smallest crystal diameter

Which of the following transducers has the deepest focus?A. 4MHz, 4mm crystal diameter B. 6MHz, 4mm crystal diameter C. 4MHz, 6mm crystal diameter D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

Which transducer has the lowest intensity at the end of the near zone?A. 4MHz, 4mm crystal diameter B. 6MHz, 4mm crystal diameter C. 4MHz, 6mm crystal diameter D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

Which of the following transducer has the least divergence in the far field?A. Lowest frequency, largest crystal diameter B. Highest frequency, largest crystal diameter C. Lowest frequency, smallest crystal diameter D. Highest frequency, smallest crystal diameter

B. Highest frequency,largest crystal diameter

Which of the following transducer has the best lateral resolution in the far field?A. 4MHz, 4mm crystal diameter B. 6MHz, 4mm crystal diameter C. 4MHz, 6mm crystal diameter D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

D. 6MHz, 6mm crystal diameter

❤ A sound beam is created by a round PZT crystal with a diameter of 10 mm. The focal depth of the sound beam is 8 cm. What is the diameter of the sound beam at a depth of 8 cm?A. 8cmB. 3mmC. 5mmD. 4mm

C. 5mm

❤ A sound beam is created by a round PZT crystal with a diameter of 10 mm. The focal depth of the sound beam is 8 cm. What is the diameter of the sound beam at a depth of 16 cm?A. The same as the transducer diameter B. 3/4 the transducer diameter C. Half the transducer diameter D. 4 mm

A. The same as the transducer diameter

What is the ability to distinguish two structures lying close together?

Resolution

The ability to distinguish two structures close together front to back or parallel to the sound beam is called?

Longitudinal, axial, range, radial, or depth resolution

Axial resolution is measured with units of ?

distance, such as mm

The more cycles there are in a pulse, the (greater or lesser, same) is the numerical value of the range resolution?

Greater

If a new transducer creates a pulse with more cycles, the image quality ( improves, degrades, remains the same)

(High/Low) Frequency transducers generally have the best range resolution?

High

❤ Which of the following transducer will have the poorest axial resolution?A. 1.7MHz, 4 cycles per pulseB. 2.6MHz, 3 cycles per pulseC. 1.7MHz, 5 cycles per pulse D. 2.6MHz, 2 cycles per pulse

C. 1.7MHz, 5 cycles per pulse This is the longest pulse. It has the lowest frequency the most cycles/pulse

❤ Which of the following transducer will have the poorest axial resolution?A. Low frequency, few cycles B. High frequency, many cyclesC. Low frequency, many cycles D. High frequency, few cycles

C. Low frequency, many cycles

❤ Which of the following transducer has the best axial resolution?A. 1.7MHz, 4 cycles per pulse B. 2.6MHz, 3 cycles per pulse C. 1.7MHz, 5 cycles per pulse D. 2.6MHz, 2 cycles per pulse

D. 2.6MHz, 2 cycles per pulse This is the shortest pulse, highest frequency and the fewest cycles per pulse

❤ How can lateral resolution at a given depth be estimated?A. Use a digital calipers to measure the distance between two reflectors separated by 10 cm in a rangeB. Scan a specular reflector with perpendicular beam incidence, using two different gain settingsC. Determine the maximum depth of penetration in a tissue phantomD. Measure the largest dimensions on the image size of a point reflector

D. Measure the largest dimensions on the image size of a point reflector.

Which of the following is an advantage of 1/2 dimensional array?A. Good axial resolution B. Reduced slice thickness C. Ability to focus in the lateral planeD. Can make large images

B. Reduce slice thickness

(True or False) Mechanical scanning produces scan lines that separate or diverge with greater depth?

True

(True or False) There are many active elements firing at almost the same time in a mechanical scanner?

FalseThere are small time delays in the firing patterns of a phased array transducer.

(True or False) Linear arrays create sound beam that are parallel and remain evenly spaced at all depths?

True

The firing pattern that steers a beam left or right related to?

Electronic slope

The firing pattern that focuses an ultrasound beam relates to?

Electronic curvature

(True or False) There are large time delays in the firing pattern of a phased array transducer?

FalseThere are small time delays in firing pattern of a phased array transducer

(True or False) A machine that displays a 2D image and Doppler is called a duplex scanner?

TrueA machine that displays Doppler and 2D imaging is called duplex scanner

Which of the following best describe the sound beam of an annular array transducer?A. Mechanically steered and focused B. Electronically steered and focused C. Mechanically steered and electronically focused D. Electronically steered and mechanically focused

C. Mechanically steered and electronically focused

The firing delay patterns of a linear phased array transducer _______?A. Focus the sound beam during reception B. Focus the sound beam during transmission C. Improve axial resolution D. Improve temporal resolution

B. Focus the sound beam during transmission

What is the typical valuse for the electrical signal delays in a convex phased array transducer?A. 10msB. 10sC. 10usD. 10ns

D. 10 ns, ten billionths of a second

Which transducer creates a beam that is focused in all planes and at all depths?A. Annular phased arrayB. Linear phased array C. Convex phased array D. Vector arrayE. 2-D array

A. Annular phased array

Which transducer will improve elevational resolution?A. Annular phased array B. Linear phased array C. Convex phased array D. Vector arrayE. 2-D array

A. Annular phased array

Which transducer will improve elevational resolution?A. 1/2 dimensional arrayB. Linear phased array C. Convex phased array D. Vector arrayE. 2-D array

A. 1/2 dimensional array

Which of the following terms is associated with a vector array?A. rectangular B. Mechanical steeringC. AzimuthalD. Expanded viewE. 4-D imaging

D. Expanded view

Which of the following is most important in determining the frame rate of a system?A. Speed of sound in the medium B. Dynamic range of the receiver C. Frequency of the transducer D. Transmitter output

A. Speed of the sound in the medium

Which of the following resolution improved when frame rate increases?A. Lateral B. Longitudinal C. Temporal D. Spatial

C. Temporal

Which of the following is consistent with increased or improved temporal resolution?A. More shades of grayB. More detail imageC. Color Doppler D. Higher frame rates

D. Higher frame rate

❤ All of these decrease temporal resolution except?A. Lower frame rateB. Deeper imagingC. Multi focus imaging D. Narrow sector

D. Narrow sector

❤ A Sonographer adjusts an ultrasound machine to double the depth of view from 5cm to 10cm. If the frame rate remains the same, which one of the following also changes?A. Increased line density B. Wider sectorC. Multi focus turned onD. Narrow sector

D. Narrow sector

A Sonographer adjusts an image to change the sector size from 90 to 45 degrees. Nothing else changes. The frame rate is ______?A. DoubledB. UnchangedC. halvedD. Decreased by a factor of 4

A. Doubled

❤ A Sonographer changes an image's sector size from 90 to 45 degrees. The frame rate remained unchanged. What else must happen?A. The temporal resolution was doubled B. The sector size was doubled C. The line density was doubled D. The imaging depth was halved

C. The line density was doubled

❤ A Sonographer, using a phased array ultrasound system, turns off the multi focus feature. What is the most likely consequence of this action?A. The frame rate decreasesB. The temporal resolution degradesC. The imaging depth increasesD. The temporal resolution improves

D. The temporal resolution improves

❤ A Sonographer increases the line density from 1 line per degree of sector to 3 lines per degree of sector. What is the consequence of this action?A. The frame rate increases B. The temporal resolution decreases C. The imaging quality decreases D. The temporal resolution increases

B. The temporal resolution decreases

Which of the following will increase frame rate by a factor of 3?A. Setting imaging depth to 3cmB. Changing imaging depth from 10 to 3cmC. Changing sector angle from 90 to 45 degreesD. Changing imaging depth from 21 to 7cmE. Increasing output power by 3dB

D. Changing imaging depth from 21 to 7cm

Which of the following will have no effect upon temporal resolution?A. Increasing imaging depth B. Increasing transducer frequency C. Increasing the # of fociD. Decreasing imaging depth E. Decreasing sector size

B. Increasing transducer frequency

❤ What is the frame rate if each image of ultrasound system is created in 0.02 seconds (1/50th sec)?A. 20HzB. 100HzC. 50HzD. 15Hz

C. 50Hz

❤ What is the time needed to make a single image if the frame rate of ultrasound system is 20Hz?A. 1sB. 0.02sC. 0.05sD. 15Hz

C. 0.05s

(True or False) The critical factor in determining frame rate, line density, and imaging depth is the type of transducer used?

FalseThe critical factor in determining frame rate, line density, and imaging depth is time

(True or False) The lines per frame and the frame rate determine the sound wave's frequency?

FalseThe number of line per frame and the frame rate determine the pulse repetition frequency

(True or False) The lines per frame and the frame rate determine the pulse repetition frequency

True

(True or False) The fundamental limitation of temporal resolution is imaging depth?

FalseIt is propagation speed

(True or False) As frame rate increases, the image quality may degrade?

True

Which choice is best when the image on your Ultrasound system displays reflectors only in a region far from the transducer but no reflectors in a region close to the transducer?A. Adjust the systems time gain compensation B. Use the higher frequency transducer C. Decrease the output power D. Adjust the dynamic range

A. Adjust the systems time gain compensation

What form of behavior creates harmonic?A. Frequency multiplication B. Frequency inversionC. Non linear D. Phased proliferation

C. Non linear

( True or False) Pulse inversion harmonics use narrow bandwidth transducer?

False

All of the following are requirements of contrast agents EXCEPT?A. Positive risk benefit relationship B. Long persistenceC. Smaller than red blood cellsD. Reasonable cost and/or reimbursement E. Strong reflector of sound

D. Reasonable cost and/or reimbursement

If the second harmonic has a frequency of a 4 MHz, what is the fundamental frequency?A. 8 MHzB. 4 MHzC. 2 MHzD. Cannot be determined by the information presented

C. 2 MHz

❤ (True or False) Harmonics are multiples of the transducer frequency?

True

If the fundamental frequency is 4 MHz, what is the harmonic frequency?A. 8 MHzB. 4 MHzC. 2 MHzD. Cannot be determined by the information presented

A. 8 MHz

What non linear behavior creates harmonics in tissues?

Sound traveling faster in compressions and slower in regions of rarefaction

What is the rationale for ALARA principal? A. Carbon footprint B. Climate change C. Patient exposure D. Cavitation

C. Patient exposure

Which of the following is associated with uniform amplification of signals?A. Compensation B. Overall gainC. Threshold D. Gain

D. Gain

Which choice is best when the image on your ultrasound system displays only reflectors in a region close to the transducer but not deep?A. Adjust the systems time gain compensation B. Use a higher frequency transducer C. Increase the output power D. Adjust the reject level

A. Adjust the systems time gain compensation

Which of the following is associated with uniform brightness of an image?A. Amplification B. RejectC. Threshold D. Compensation

D. Compensation

All of the following are characteristics of contrast agents EXCEPT?A. High reflectivity B. Cost effective C. Metabolically inertD. Small enough to flow thru capillaries

B. Cost effective

An entire ultrasound image is too dark, but of uniform brightness. Which of the following is the first adjustment that should be made to make the image brighter?A. Increase TGCB. Increase output power C. Increase compensation D. decrease gain

B. Increase output power

An entire ultrasound image is too bright, but of uniform brightness. Which of the following is the first adjustment that should be made to make darker?A. Decrease TGCB. Decrease output power C. Increase compensation D. Decrease gain

B. Decrease output power

(True or False) Preamplification process extremely weak signals that are susceptible to noise and often takes place in the transducer?

True

Which of the following would have the shallowest delay on a TGC curve?A. 5 MHz linear phased array transducer B. 3 MHz mechanical scannerC. 4 MHz continuous wave transducer D. 2 MHz annular phased array transducer

A. 5 MHz linear phased array transducer

Which of the following would have the deepest delay on TGC curve? A. 5 MHz linear phased array transducer B. 3 MHz mechanical scannerC. 4 MHz continuous wave transducer D. 2 MHz annular phased array transducer

D. 2 MHz annular phased array transducer

With regard to ALARA, what is the best way to image deeper?A. Increased output power B. Decrease PRFC. Decrease transducer frequency D. Increase overall gain

C. Decrease transducer frequency

Which of the following associated with pulse inversion imaging?A. Improved temporal resolution B. Improved details C. Elevated frame rateD. High frequency phased mulipliers

B. Improved details

Which of the following is associated with pulse inversion imaging?A. Reduced temporal resolution B. Reduced spatial resolution C. Reduce signal to noise ratio D. High frequency phased multipliers

A. Reduced temporal resolution

Using pulse inversion harmonic, an image is created with 4 MHz sound. What is the resonant frequency of the transducer?A. 8 MHzB. 4 MHzC. 2 MHzD. Cannot be determined by the information presented

C. 2 MHz

Where are harmonics created?A. In the receiverB. In the transducer C. In the tissuesD. In the receiver, transducer, and tissues

C. In the tissues

(True or False) Pulse inversion harmonics transducer needs to send sound at one frequency and receive sound twice that frequency?

True

Why do contrast agents reflect sound?A. Because the speed of sound in the agent is highB. Because the impedance of the agent is lowC. Because the speed of sound in the agent is different than that in soft tissue D. Because the impedance of the agent is different than the impedance of soft tissue E. Because the agent is a gas filled bubble

D. Because the impedance of the agent is different than the impedance of soft tissue

If the third harmonic has a frequency of 6 MHz, what is the fundamental frequency?A. 8 MHzB. 4 MHzC. 2 MHzD. Cannot be determined by the information presented

C. 2 MHz

If the fundamental frequency is 4 MHz, what is the third harmonic frequency?A. 12 MHzB. 8 MHzC. 2 MHzD. cannot be determined by the information presented

A. 12 MHz

The Doppler effect is presented as a _______ when the source and the receiver are ______?

Frequency shift, In motion relative to each other

A sound beam is traveling from east to west. Blood is traveling from north to south. Which statement is true?A. No Doppler shift will be createdB. A maximum Doppler shift is createdC. A minimum Doppler shift is createdD. The Doppler shift is in the MHz range

A. No Doppler shift will be createdThis scene is normal incidence

Which transducer measures the greatest Doppler shift?

Transducer A measures the greatest Doppler shift because the angle between the direction of flow and the direction of the sound beam is 0 degrees or parallel

Will the Doppler shift be positive or negative?

The Doppler shift will be positive since the blood is flowing toward the transducer

Which transducer measures a reflection with the greatest amplitude?

Transducer A will receive a reflection with the greatest amplitude since the blood cells are located closest to the transducer and therefore undergo less attenuation

Starting from the same point, the sound source is moving towards the west at 12 miles/hour and the receiver is moving towards the west at 10 miles/hour. The Doppler shift is (+/-)?

The Doppler shift is negative because the source and receiver are moving further apart. They started at the same point

Starting from the same point, the sound source is moving towards the west at 12 miles/hour and the source is moving towards the west at 10 miles/hour. The Doppler shift is (+/-)?

The Doppler shift is negative because the source and receiver are moving further apart. They started at the same point

Doppler shift produces information about _______?

Doppler shift produces information about Velocity.

At what angle between the sound beam and the direction of motion will the Doppler shift beam maximum?

0 degrees or 180 degrees(The sound beam and the direction of motion should be parallel)

At what angle between the sound beam and the direction of motion will the Doppler shift be a minimum?

90 degree. No Doppler frequency exists because the cosine of 90 degree is zero

What is the difference between speed and velocity?

Speed is magnitude only, velocity is magnitude & direction

What is the current method of processing spectral and color Doppler signals?

(FFT) The Fast Fourior Transform method of spectral analysis for pulsed and CW. Autocorrelation for color flow Doppler

What is the typical range of Doppler shift found in diagnostic imaging examinations?

Between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. In the audible range

The phenomenon where high velocities appear negative is called _______?

Aliasing

The frequency at which aliasing occurs is called ________?

Nyquist limit

The area of interrogation in a pulsed Doppler exam is called_____________?

Sample volume

(True or False) The higher the emitted frequency the more likely a signal is to alias?

True

(True or False) The shallower the sample volume is, the more likely a signal to alias?

False

(True or False) Only pulsed wave Doppler exams have sample volumes?

True

An 8 MHz transducer with a pulse repetition frequency of 5,000 Hz is imaging to a depth of 7 cm. What is the Nyquist frequency?A. 4 MHzB. 3.5 HzC. 2.2 kHzD. 2.5 dB

C. 2.2 kHzThe actual nyquist limit is one half of the PRF,

❤ What features does pulsed wave Doppler have that continuous wave Doppler does not?

Pulsed wave Doppler has a receive gate that is adjusted by the Sonographer

You are using a tissue equivalent phantom. At a particular depth, reflection are no longer observed. What are you evaluating?A. Dynamic range B. Spatial positivity C. Axial resolution D. Sensitivity

D. Sensitivity

Using a tissue equivalent phantom, two pins at depths of 2 cm and 10 cm are imaged. On the system display, you measure the distance between the two reflections created by these pins. What are you evaluating?A. Dynamic rangeB. Range calibration C. Spatial positivity D. Lateral resolution

B. Range calibration

Using a tissue equivalent phantom, a sonographer adjusts the gain so that reflections on the display change from fully bright to barely visible. What is the sonographer evaluating?A. Sensitivity B. Range calibration C. Axial resolution D. Spatial resolution

A. Sensitivity

Which of the following phantom can be used to evaluate performance Doppler system?A. HydrophoneB. Tissue equivalent phantom C. String phantom D. Shift equivalent phantom

C. String phantom

Which of the following terms best describes the interval at which quality assurance evaluation should be performed?A. WeeklyB. ConsistentlyC. RoutinelyD. Monthly

C. Routinely

Which of these phantoms has similar attenuation properties as that of soft tissue A. Belt phantom B. String phantom C. AIUM 100mm test objectD. Tissue equivalent phantom

D. Tissue equivalent phantom

Which agency collects Sonographer injury data in the workplace?A. Federal Drug Administration B. SDMSC. AIUMD. OSHA

B. SDMS

Two pins in a test object are 100 mm apart. The system displays these pins as being 90 mm apart. How far apart will the system display a pair of pins that are actually 70 mm apart?A. 90 mmB. 70 mmC. 63 mmD. 60 mm

C. 63 mm

Two pins in a test object are 100 mm apart. The system displays these pins as being 90 mm apart. How far apart will the system display a pair of pins that are actually 50 mm apart?A. 90 mmB. 45 mmC. 63 mmD. 60 mm

B. 45 mm

Why is tissue equivalent phantom used o interpret gray scale?A. Because sound propagatesB. Because sound refractsC. Because sound attenuatedD. No one knows why

C. Because sound attenuates

Which agency creates safety regulations for the workplace?A. Federal Drug Administration B. AHAC. AIUMD. OSHA

D. OSHA

Who is responsible for the quality assurance program in ultrasound lab?A. Sonographer B. Legal counsel of the facility C. System manufacturerD. Facility biomed department

A. Sonographer

Sound waves are?A. Electric B. Mechanical, transverse C. Spectral D. Longitudinal, mechanical

D. Longitudinal, mechanical

The speed of US in soft tissue is closest to?A. 1,540 km/secB. 1.54 km/msec C. 1,500 m/sD. 1,540 mm/sec

C. 1,500 m/s

The frequency closest to the lower limit of US is?A. 19,000 kHzB. 10,000 MHzC. 20,000 msec D. 15,000 Hz

D. 15,000 Hz

Which is not an acoustic variable?A. DensityB. Pressure C. Distance D. Intensity

D. Intensity

The effects of soft tissue on US are called?A. Acoustic proliferation properties B. Dynamic effectsC. Acoustic propagation properties D. Bioeffects

C. Acoustic propagation properties

All of the following are true except?A. Two waves with identical frequency must interfere constructively B. Constructive interference is associated with waves that are in phaseC. Out of phase waves interfere destructively D. Waves of different frequency may exhibit both constructive and destructive interference at different times

A. Two waves with identical frequency must interfere constructively

The major benefit of pulse inversion imaging is _______, while primary limitation is ______?A. Harmonic imaging, decrease lateral resolution B. Improved spatial resolution, decreased temporal resolution C. Harmonic imaging, elevated axial resolution D. Improved contrast resolution, decreased spatial

B. Improved spatial resolution, decreased temporal resolution

Put in decreasing order:A) Deca B) DeciC) MicroD) Centi

A. DecaB. DeciD. MicroC. Centi

_________ is the time to complete on cycle?A. Pulse duration B. Pulse period C. PeriodD. Duration period

C. Period

Which of the following sound waves is ultrasonic and least useful in diagnostic imaging?A. 30 KHzB. 8 MHzC. 8,000 HzD. 3,000 kHzE. 15 Hz

A. 30 KHz

What is the frequency of a wave with 1 msec?A. 10,000 HzB. 1,000 kHzC. 1 kHzD. 1 MHz

C. 1 kHz

________ is the distance covered by one cycle?A. Pulse length B. Wavelength C. Cycle distance D. Cycle Duration

B. Wavelength

Which of the following is determined by the source and the medium?A. Frequency B. Period C. Propagation speed D. Range resolution

D. Range resolution

Propagation speed = _______× wavelength A. Pulse duration B. PeriodC. # of cycles in the pulseD. Frequency

D. Frequency

As a result of ______ the propagation speed increases? A. increase stiffness and increase density B. Increase stiffness and increase elasticity C. Decrease compressibility and decrease density D. Decrease stiffness and decrease density

C. Decrease compressibility and decrease density

Put in order of propagation speed.A. GasB. Liquid C. Solid

C. SolidB. Liquid A. Gas

In the same medium, if the frequency of US is increased from 0.77MHz to 1.54 MHz, What happens to the wavelength?A. DoublesB. HalvesC. Remains the same D. 4 times greater

B. Halves

A sound wave's frequency is 10 MHz. The wave is traveling in soft tissue. What is the wavelength?A. 0.15 mmB. 1.54 mmC. 15.4 mmD. 0.77 mmE. 10 MHz

A. 0.15 mm

If the frequency of an US wave is doubled, What happens to the period?A. Doubles B. Halves C. Remains the same D. 4 times greater

B. Halves

If the frequency of an US is increased from 0.77 MHz to 1.54 MHz, What happens to propagation speed?A. DoublesB. HalvesC. Remains the same D. 4 times greater

C. Remains the same

The units of pulse repetition frequency are?A. Per minute B. Msec C. mm/usD. MHx

A. Per minute

The time from the beginning of a pulse until it's end is ______?A. PeriodB. Pulse duration C. Pulse length D. PRF

B. Pulse duration

What happens to the speed of sound in a medium, When the bulk modulus of the medium increases?A. FasterB. SlowerC. unchanged

A. Faster

_______ resolution is determined by the spatial pulse length?A. RadialB. ImageC. Axial D. Angular

If a wave's amplitude is doubled, what happens to the power?A. NothingB. HalvedC. DoubledD. Quadrupled

Powering of sound has units of?A. dBB. dB/cmC. WattsD. Watts/cm^2

C. Watts

If the intensity of a sound beam remains unchanged while the beam area is reduced in half, What has happened to the power?A. Quadrupled B. DoubledC. HalvedD. unchanged

C. Halved

Which of these intensities are smallest?A. SATPB. SPTPC. SATA

C. SATA

The duty factor for continuous wave ultrasound is?A. 10.0B. 1%C. 1.0D. 0.0%

C. 1.0

What is the minimum value of the duty factor?A. 10.0B. 1%C. 1.0D. 0.0%

D. 0.0

What are the units of intensity?A. WattsB. Decibels C. Watts/cm squaredD. Decibels

C. Watts/cm squared

What happens to the speed of sound in a medium when the bulk modulus of the medium decreases?A. FasterB. SlowerC. Unchanged

B. Slower

The units of attenuation are ______ and this is a ________ scale?A. Mm/cm, parametric B. DB/m, multiplicative C. None, relativeD. DB, logarithmic

D. dB, logarithmic

Sound intensity is decreased by 75%. How many dB of attenuation is this?A. 6 dBB. 9 dBC. 5 dBD. 10 dB

A. 6 dB

The fundamental frequency of a transducer is 2.5 MHz. What is the second harmonic frequency?A. 1.25 MHzB. 4.5 MHzC. 5 MHzD. 5 cm

C. 5 MHz

A pulse is emitted by a transducer and is traveling in soft tissue. The go-return time, or time of flight, of a sound pulse is 130 microseconds. What is the reflector depth?A. 10 cmB. 10 mmC. 10 mD. 130 mmE. 13 cm

A. 10 cm

❤ If a 5 MHz sound wave is traveling in the tissue listed below, Which will the shortest wavelength?A. FatB. AirC. MuscleD. Bone

B. AirThe speed of air is the lowest

❤ If a 5 MHz sound wave is traveling in the tissue listed below, Which will the longest wavelength?A. FatB. AirC. MuscleD. Bone

D. BoneThe speed of sound in bone is the highest

What is the approximate attenuation coefficient of 1 MHz US in soft tissue?A. 0.5 dB/cmB. 1 cmC. 3 dB/cmD. 1 dB

A. 0.5dB/cm

The rayl is the unit of?A. Intensity B. ReflectanceC. Density D. Impedance

D. Impedance

Impedance is the _____ of ______ and _______?A. Product, propagation speed, density B. Sum, stiffness, density C. Quotient, stiffness, propagation speedD. Difference, attenuation, density

A. Product, propagation speed, density

What are the attenuation's three components?

Scattering, reflection, absorption

For soft the approximate attenuation coefficient in dB/cm is equal to one half _______ and _________?A. Wavelength, mmB. Frequency, HzC. Frequency, MHzD. Impedance, rayls

C. Frequency, MHz

As the impedance of two media become vastly different the?A. Reflection increases B. Transmission increasesC. Refraction increases D. Absorption increases

A. Reflection increases

The angle between an US pulse and the boundary between two media is 90 degree. What is this called?A. Direct incidence B. Oblique incidence C. Indirect incidence D. Orthogonal incidence

D. Orthogonal incidence

The angle between an US pulse and the boundary between two media is 56 degree. This is called?A. Direct incidence B. Oblique incidence C. Indirect incidence D. Orthogonal incidence

B. Oblique incidence

Refraction only occurs if there are?A. Normal incidence and different impedance B. Indirect intensity and different propagation speed C. Oblique incidence and different propagation speedsD. Oblique frequency and identical impedance

C. Oblique incidence and different propagation speeds

With normal incidence, What factors affect refraction of US?A. Propagation speed B. Frequency C. Attenuation coefficients D. None of the above

D. None of the above

(True or False) With right angle incidence, reflection are always generated at a boundary if the propagation speed of the media are different?

False

_______ is redirection of US in many directions as a result of a rough boundary between two media?A. Refraction B. Rayleigh scattering C. Scattering D. Reflection

C. Scattering

(True or False) With normal incidence the angle is 180 degree

False

Under which of the following conditions is axial resolution improved?A. Decrease spatial pulse length B. Decrease pulse amplitude C. Decrease imaging depth D. Decrease pixel size E. Decrease beam diameter

A. Decrease spatial pulse length

Snell's law describes physics of?A. Ultrasound B. Reflection C. Refraction D. Transmission

C. Refraction

The most likely amount of reflection at boundary between soft tissue is?A. 1%B. 22%C. 34%D. 99%

A. 1%

The most typical amount of transmission at a boundary in biologic media is?A. 1%B. 22%C. 34%D. 99%

D. 99%

Sound is traveling from medium 1 to medium 2. Propagation speed of M1 and M2 are 1,600 m/s and 1,500 m/s respectively. There is normal incidence?A. Angle of incidence 》angle of reflection B. Angle of incidence = angle of reflection C. Angle of incidence 《 angle of reflection

B. Angle of incidence = angle of reflection

If the frequency is decreased, the numerical value of the radial resolution is?A. Increased B. DecreasedC. Unchanged

A. Increased

A transducer _________ one form of ______ into another?

Converts, energy

The production of a voltage from the application of a pressure is called?A. PiezoelectricityB. Impedance C. Cogeneration D. Flux

A. Piezoelectricity

What is the production of deformation from voltage called?A. Piezoelectricity B. Impedance C. Cogeneration D. Flux

A. Piezoelectricity

Which is not a part of a transducer?A. Active crystal B. Matching layer C. A/D converter D. Wire

C. A/D converter

Which of the following best describes the features of a sound wave and medium that determines the speed of sound in the medium? A. Density of the medium and stiffness of the medium B. Density of the medium and power of the sound beam C. Elasticity of the medium and frequency of the sound beam D. Stiffness of the medium and elasticity of the medium E. PRP of the sound wave and density of the medium

A. Density of the medium and stiffness of the medium

❤ While scanning in a water tank, What location in a sound beam has the highest intensity?A. Focal pointB. Focal zoneC. Fresnel zoneD. Fraunhofer zoneE. Half value depth

A. Focal point

Which of the following is associated with power mode Doppler?A. Poor temporal resolution and flash artifacts B. Lower sensitivity and good temporal resolution C. High sensitivity and high frame rate D. Flash artifact and reduced sensitivity E. Good temporal resolution and flash artifacts

A. Poor temporal resolution and flash artifacts

The Doppler shift is a measure of?A. Ratio of incidence frequency to reflector frequency B. Sum of incidence frequency & reflected frequency C. Difference between incidence & reflected frequency D. Product of incidence and reflected frequency

C. Difference between incidence & reflected frequency

(True or False) The Sonographer cannot change, directly or indirectly, the duty factor of an US machine?

False

Depth calibration of a machine measures 100mm spaced wires to be 90mm apart. Scanning reflectors 50mm apart, what will the machine calculate the distance to be?A. 40 mmB. 45 mmC. 60 mmD. 65 mm

B. 45 mm

(True or False) There have not been biological effects from US found in the laboratory?

False

Which of the following is most relevant with regard to bioeffects? A. Mechanical indexB. Overall gainC. Output intensity D. Thermal index

C. Output intensity

How many cm are 60 millimeters?A. 600B. 6C. 0.6D. 0.06

B. 6

(True or False) Lateral resolution is also called axial?

False

(True or False) Lateral resolution is also called azimuthal?

True

(True or False) Lateral resolution is also called longitudinal?

False

(True or False) Lateral resolution is also called range?

False

Which has the correct units? Freq. Speed. Inten. Atten A. Hz. mm/s. joules. DB/cmB. mHz. m/sec. W/cm^2. DBC. kHz. mm/us. W/cm^3. DB/cm

B. mHz, m/sec, W/cm^2, DB

❤ What increase patient exposure?A. Exam timeB. Frequency C. Video tapingD. Wavelength

A. Exam time

(True or False) Shadowing my result from high amounts of reflection of US energy?

True

❤ Where are harmonics created?A. In the receiverB. In the transducer C. In the tissuesD. In the beam former

C. In the tissues

How is the range ambiguity artifact eliminated?A. Lower PRFB. Raise the PRFC. Increase the gainD. Use a lower frequency transducer

A. Lower PRF

How is lateral resolution measured if the test object is scanned from the top?A. Measure the distance from A to EB. Measure the length of line C and divide by 2C. Measure the length of line B

C. Measure the length of line B

For Doppler, Which incidence angle results in no shift?A. 180 degreesB. 90 degrees C. 0 degreesD. 45 degrees

B. 90 degrees

Which transducer would be best to image superficial structures?A. Small diameter, high frequency B. Small diameter, low frequency C. Large diameter, high frequency D. Large diameter, low frequency

A. Small diameter, high frequency

A transducer with more than one active element is called?A. Multipurpose B. Annular C. Mechanical D. Array

D. Array

How many bits are needed to represent 16 shades of gray?A. 2B. 3C. 4D. 5

C. 4

What information does Doppler shift provide?A. FlowB. Cardiac outputC. Velocity D. Speed

C. Velocity

(True or False) A sound wave is a pressure wave made of compressions and rarefactions

True

A hydrophone is used to measure?A. Velocity B. Frequency C. Intensity D. Phase

B. Frequency or C. Intensity

Images on videotape are stored using?A. MagicB. MagnetismC. PaperD. Computer memory

B. Magnetism

Circumference can be measured in unit of?A. CmB. Cm squaredC. Cubic cmD. Cubits

A. Cm

Decimal uses a base of 10, binary uses a base of?A. 1B. 2C. 5D. 10

B. 2

If the frame rate increases and the lines per frame is unchanged, What else must happen?A. US speed increases B. Frequency increases C. Depth increases D. Depth decreases

D. Depth decreases

Which of these cannot be performed by a Sonographer?A. Adjust gainB. Alter gray scaleC. Clean pixels D. Adjust time gain compensation

C. Clean pixels

Which of the following is not a beam steering technique for a mechanical scan head?A. Rotating wheelB. Phased beamC. Oscillating discD. Oscillating mirror

B. Phased beam

(True or False) A system which was working well now does not display clear images in the far field. This may be a problem with the transducer?

True

(True or False) A system which was working well now does not display clear images in the far field. This may be a problem with the receiver?

True

(True or False) A system which was working well now does not display clear images in the far field. This may be a problem with the monitor?

True

(True or False) A system which was working well now does not display clear images in the far field. This may be a problem with the scan converter?

True

❤ Which has the greatest amount of attenuation?A. BoneB. FatC. WaterD. Muscle

A. Bone

Which of the following will result in the greatest number of shades of grey in a digital display?A. Large pixels with many bits/pixels B. Small pixels with few bits/pixels C. Many TV line per frameD. High contrast E. Narrow dynamic range

A. Large pixels with many bits/pixels

What is not the responsibility of the Sonographer?A. Clean the filtersB. Adjust the recorderC. Adjust the converter matrixD. Change paper

With good images on the display but not the printer, one should?A. Increase the gainB. Check the scan headC. Check the scan converter D. Adjust the recorder

To measure the US beam intensity, use a?A. Calibration hydrophone B. Lateral oscilloscopeC. Water filled phantom D. Tissue equivalent phantom

A. Calibration hydrophone

When the US machine displays only strong reflecting objects and nothing else, the Sonographer should?A. adjust far gainB. Increase output power C. Increase lateral resolution D. Adjust TGC

B. Increase output power

Dynamic range is used to?A. Decrease the amplitude B. Alter the gray scaleC. Reduce speckle

B. Alter the gray scale

Reject is used to?A. Alter the appearance of highly reflective objects B. Alter the appearance of lowly reflective objects C. Improve axial resolution D. Improve digital scan converter sensitivity

B. Alter the appearance of lowly reflective objects

If a reflector is moved twice as far away from the transducer, How will this affect the time-of-flight of a sound pulse? A. Quadrupled itB. Double itC. No changeD. Halved it

B. Double it

A single element transducer is focused?A. By the manufacturer B. Cannot be focusedC. By increasing output powerD. By the Sonographer

A. By the manufacturer

An US machine has a digital scan converter but has an analog input signal. The machine needs to have a?A. Hybrid multiplexer B. Modem C. Analog to digital converter D. Digital monitor

C. Analog to digital converter

Under which following conditions is lateral resolution improved?A. Decreased beam diameter B. Decrease pulse duration C. Decrease imaging depthD. Decrease pixel size E. Decrease spatial pulse length

A. Decrease beam diameter

In which way is an annular phased array transducer different than a linear phased array transducer?A. The linear is steered mechanicallyB. The linear can have multiple focal zonesC. The annular can create rectangular shaped images D. The linear has higher PRFE. The annular is steered mechanically

E. The annular is steered mechanically

In which of these biologic tissues will sound waves propagate most quickly?A. TendonB. BloodC. LungD. FatE. Amniotic fluid

A. Tendon

Which of the following best describes a sound beam?A. Electrical impulses B. A collection of mechanical vibrations in the form of compressions and rare fractionsC. A wave that man can hearD. Electromechanical variations E. Ionic vibrations

B. A collection of mechanical vibrations in the form of compression and rarefactions

You are preforming a quality assurance study on an ultrasound system using a tissue equivalent phantom. You make an adjustment using a knob on the system console that changes the appearance of reflector brightness from fully bright to bearly visible. What are you evaluating?A. Resolution B. Dynamic range C. System sensitivity D. Vertical calibration E. Slice thickness

C. System sensitivity

Which of the following factors has the greatest influence on PRP?A. Display depthB. Thickness of the PZT crystal C. Attenuation of the sound beam D. Impedance of the medium E. Displays dynamic range

A. Display depth

Which of the following choices best describes an ideal epidemiologic bioeffects study?A. Randomized and prospective B. Benefits out weigh the risksC. Retrospective and optimized D. Ideal and non biasedE. Prudent and safe

A. Randomized and prospective

Which of the following will result in the highest mechanical index?A. High frequency and low powerB. High intensity and high frequency C. Low frequency and high signal amplitude D. Low intensity and low frequency

C. Low frequency and high signal amplitude

All of the following statements regarding in vitro bioeffects are true except?A. In vitro bioeffects conclusions are clinically relevant B. In vitro bioeffects are always realC. In vitro bioeffects are very important D. In vitro bioeffects may not be applicable to clinical settings

A. In vitro bioeffects conclusions are clinically relevant

Under which circumstances is the mechanical index lowest?A. High frequency and low powerB. High intensity and high frequency C. Low intensity and low frequency D. Low frequency and high signal amplitude

A. High frequency and low power

Which of the following improves the signal to noise ratio?A. Dynamic range B. Frame averagingC. Gray scaleD. Edge enhancement E. Receiver gain

B. Frame averaging

Under which circumstance is cavitation most likely to occur?A. High frequency and low powerB. High intensity and high frequency C. Low intensity and low frequency D. Low frequency and high signal amplitude

D. Low frequency and high signal amplitude

Where does code excitation originate?A. In the receiverB. In the tissuesC. In the contrast D. In the matching layerE. In the pulser

E. In the pulser

Pre-processing occurs?A. When the patient is scannedB. When images are transferred to VCRC. After the images are on the tapeD. When the image exits the scan converter

A. When the patient is scanned

Post Processing occurs when the image?A. Is played off of the VCRB. Entered the A/D converter but before displayC. After it leaves the A/D converter D. After it leaves the scan converter

B. Enter the A/D converter but before display

The region from the transducer to the minimum beam cross sectional area is the?A. Fraunhofer zoneB. Fresnel zoneC. FocusD. Snell's length

B. Fresnel zone

Biologic effects have not been documented below what intensity (SPTA)?A. 100 W/cm B. 100 mW/m^2C. 100 mW/cm^2D. 100 mW/cm^3

C. 100 mW/cm^2

What is the standard for communication between medical imaging computers?A. ALARAB. PACSC. D-to-A conversation D. A-to- D conversation

D. A -to- D conversation

Curie temperature has which effect?A. The backing material delaminates from the active element B. The glue binding the crystal and matching layer meltsC. The ferroelectric material is depolarized D. The matching layer changes its impedance

C. The ferroelectric material is depolarized

What happens to venous return to the heart during expiration?A. IncreasedB. DecreasedC. Unchanged

B. Decreased

Which of the following has a propagation speed closest to "soft tissue" ?A. Muscle B. FatC. BoneD. Air

A. Muscle

When can a patient revoke consent?A. At any timeB. Before the procedure begins C. NeverD. Only prior to sedation

A. At any time

Which of the following does not change temporal resolution?A. Frequency compounding B. Persistence C. Spatial compounding D. Temporal resolution

A. Frequency compounding

Which of the following is not pre-processing?A. Write magnification B. 3-D rendering C. Fill in interpolation D. Spatial compounding

B. 3-D rendering

(True or False) A Sonographer's education ends when they become registered?

False

Tje dynamic range is ratio of the smallest to the largest ______ that a system can process without distortion?A. Amplitude B. Frequency C. Phase delayD. Spatial length

A. Amplitude

When may a patient revoke their consent to be treated? A. At any time B. When it is safe to terminate the procedure C. Never

A. At any time

If the intensity is increased by 3 dB, it?A. Doubles B. TriplesC. HalvedD. Quartered

A.Doubles

What determines the frequency of a sound beam from a pulsed transducer?A. Voltage applied to the PZTB. PZT thickness C. Frequency of the system D. PRF of the pulser

B. PZT thickness

While propagating, a sound wave is refracted. Finally, it returns to the transducer. The system processes the sound wave as if it has?A. Refracted and returnedB. Traveled in a straight line, reflected and returnedC. Traveled in a straight line, attenuated, reflected and returned

B. Traveled in a straight line, reflected and returned

What measures the output of a transducer? A. ReceiverB. Display C. HydrometerD. Hydrophone

D. Hydrophone

The impedance of tissue is 3 x 10^5 rayls and for the PZT crystal is 6 x 10^6 rayls. What is the best impedance for the matching layer?A. 36 x 10^6B. 3,600C. 10,000D. 9.5 x 10^5E. 9 x 10^4

D. 9.5 x 10^5

Put in increasing order of propagation speed: A. Air, bone, waterB. Bone, water, airC. Air, water, boneD. Water, air, boneE. Bone, air, water

C. Air, water, bone

Which type of artifact appears most commonly with highly reflective objects?A. Reverberations B. Mirroring C. Shadowing D. EnhancementE. Defocusing

What can pulsed Doppler measure that continuous wave cannot?A. Duration B. SpeedC. Velocity D. Location E. Frequency

D. Location

What is the fraction of the time that a transducer is transmitting?A. Duty factor B. Pulse duration C. PeriodD. PRF spatial duration

A. Duty factor

Which of the following clinical modalities has the lowest output power intensity? A. Pulsed Doppler B. Continuous wave DopplerC. Power DopplerD. Duplex scanningE. Gray scale imaging

E. Gray scale imaging

What is the location of the minimum cross sectional area of the US beam called? A. FocusB. Fraunhofer zone C. Far zoneD. Near zone

A. Focus

The dB is defined as the ___ of two intensities. A. SumB. Difference C. ProductD. Ratio

D. Ratio

❤ An ultrasound system is set at 0 dB and is transmitting at full intensity. What is the output power when the system is transmitting at 50% of full intensity?A. -3dBB. -50dBC. 10dBD. 3dBE. -10dB

A. -3dB

❤ An ultrasound system is set at 0 dB and is transmitting at full intensity. What is the output power when the system is transmitting at 10% of full intensity?A. -3dBB. -50dBC. 10dBD. 3dBE. -10dB

E. -10dB

The Doppler shift is the _____ of two frequencies?A. SumB. Difference C. Product D. Ratio

B. Difference

What is the propagation speed determined by?A. Wavelength B. Intensity and density C. Amplitude D. Density and elasticity E. Density and amplitude

D. Density and electricity

If 300,000 cycles occur in a second, what is the wave's frequency? A. 3MHzB. 30kHzC. 300MHzD. 3kHzE. 0.3MHz

E. 0.3MHz

What would be the brightest B-mode spot, when scanning the following?

C

What may be the unit of amplitude?A. CmB. HzC. MsecD. WattsE. None of the above

A. Cm

❤ A Doppler exam is performed with a 5MHz probe and a PRF of 15MHz. Which of these Doppler shifts will create aliasing?A. 2kHzB. 2.5kHzC. 7.5kHzD. 14kHz

D. 14kHz

Which of the following choices determines the signal amplitude in the transducer of an US system?A. Reflected intensity of the sound beam B. Post processing C. Edge enhancement filtering D. Demodulation

A. Reflected intensity of the sound beam

In an air-tissue interface, What percentage of the US is reflected?A. 0%B. Near 0%C. 50%D. Near 100%

D. Near 100%

Traveling through the same medium, if the frequency is doubled, the wavelength is?A. Unchanged B. DoubledC. HalvedD. Quartered

C. Halved

Traveling through the same medium, if the frequency is doubled, the propagation speed is?A. Unchanged B. DoubledC. HalvedD. Quartered

A. Unchanged

(True or False) Increasing the frequency increases the penetration depth?

False

(True or False) Axial resolution is affected by focusing?

False

If a manufacturer changed the lines per frame and kept the imaging depth the sam, What else would change?A. PRFB. PeriodC. Frame rate

C. Frame rate

Which of the following has the greatest influence on temporal resolution?A. Propagation speed and the imaging depth B. Frequency of sound and the propagation speed C. Wavelength of sound and propagation speed D. Output power and frequency

A. Propagation speed and the imaging depth

In a real time scanner, which of these choices determines the maximum frame rate?A. Depth of viewB. Pixel size C. Attenuation coefficient D. Beam diameter E. Lateral resolution

A. Depth of view

Multiple reflections that are equally spaced are called?A. Refractions B. Reverberations C. ShadowsD. Comets

B. Reverberations

What artifacts has a grainy appearance and is caused by the interference effects of scattered sound?A. SpackledB. Reverberations C. Slice thickness D. Speckle E. Section thickness

D. Speckle

All of the following will improve temporal resolution except?A. Increase line density B. Single rather than multi focusC. Higher frame rates D. Shallower depth of view E. Slower speed of sound in a medium

A. Increase line density

Impedance is the product of _______ and _______?

Density and Propagation speed

(True or False) The manufacturer increases the number of lines per frame. As a result, which of the following may have to be decreased frequency?

False

(True or False) The manufacturer increases the number of lines per frame. As a result, which of the following may have to be decreased frame rate?

True

(True or False) The manufacturer increases the number of lines per frame. As a result, which of the following may have to be decreased sector angle?

True

(True or False) The manufacturer increases the number of lines per frame. As a result, which of the following may have to be decreased imaging depth?

True

(True or False) The manufacturer increases the number of lines per frame. As a result, which of the following may have to be decreased power output?

False

What component of a transducer changes electrical to mechanical and mechanical to electrical energy?

PZT

(True or False) Sonographer cannot affect a patient's exposure to acoustic energy?

False

Attenuation of US in soft tissue is closest to? A. 3dB/1MHzB. 1dB/cm/10MHzC. 2dB/cmD. 0.6dB/cm/MHz

D. 0.6dB/cm/MHz

How many bits are needed to represent 1024 gray shades?A. 1024B. 8C. 10D. 3E. 512

C. 10

(True or False) Gray scale can be changed by the Sonographer?

True

The distance to a target is doubled. The time of flight for a pulse to travel to the target and back is?A. 4 timesB. 8 timesC. The sameD. 2 times

D. 2 times

Volume has which of the following units?A. CmB. Cm^2C. Cm^3D. Cm^4

C. Cm^3

Which of the following is proportional to the square of the amplitude? A. Period B. Attenuation C. PowerD. Frequency E. Speed

C. Power

What are the typical clinical Doppler frequencies?A. 1-10,000HzB. 1-10MHzC. 2-1,000kHzD. 40-45kHz

A. 1-10,000Hz

❤ What Doppler angle is most inaccurate?A. 15-30 degrees B. 30-45 degrees C. 45-60 degrees D. 60-75 degrees

D. 60-75 degrees

Changing which of the following would not cause any change in a hard copy image output?A. TGCB. GainC. Output powerD. Display brightness and contrast E. Depth of view

D. Display brightness and contrast

A quality assurance program?A. Is not needed in small labsB. Is very time consuming and expensive C. Is needed by all labsD. Cannot be preformed by Sonographers

C. Is needed by all labs

What is the actual time that an US machine is creating a pulse?A. Duty factor B. PeriodC. Pulse periodD. Pulse duration

D. Pulse duration

The angle of incidence of an US beam is perpendicular to an interface. The two media have the same propagation speed. What process cannot occur?A. Refraction B. Reflection C. Transmission D. Attenuation

A. Refraction

What component of the US unit contains the memory bank?A. Transducer B. ReceiverC. Display D. Scan converter

D. Scan converter

An US wave travels through two media and has attenuation of 3 dB in the first and 5 dB in the second. What is the total attenuation? A. 15 dB B. 8 dBC. 3/5 dBD. 5/8 dB

B. 8 dB

According to the AIUM statement on bioeffects, there have been no confirmed bioeffects below intensities of ______ watts per square centimeter SPTA?A. 10B. 0.01C. 0.1D. 1E. 100

C. 0.1

Fill in of an anechoic structure such as a cyst is known as all of the following except?A. Partial volume artifacts B. Slice thickness artifacts C. Section thickness artifacts D. Ghosting artifacts

D. Ghosting artifacts

What is the range of frequencies created by medical diagnostic Doppler transducers?A. 4-10HzB. 10-20MHzC. 1-10kHzD. 2-20HzE. 2-10MHz

E. 2-10MHz

(True or False) Doppler shifts are always created when the source and receiver to each other?

False

What is the significance of gray scale variation in the spectrum of a pulsed wave Doppler display?A. It represents the number of red blood cells creating the reflection B. It represents the velocity of red blood cellsC. It represents the speed of red blood cells D. It represents the convergence of red blood cell lamina E. It determines the ensembles length

A. It represents the number of red blood cells creating the reflection

Which one of the following sets of properties of a test phantom is most relevant when assessing depth calibration accuracy?A. Reflector spacing and reflection coefficient B. Attenuation and speed of US in the medium C. Reflector spacing and US attenuation in the medium D. Reflector reflection coefficient and US attenuation in the medium E. Reflector spacing and propagation speed

E. Reflector spacing and propagation speed

Assuming a constant frequency, What happens if the diameter of an unfocused circular transducer is increased?A. The distance to the far field is reduced B. The beam width in the near field is reduced C. The beam width in the near field is increased D. The US wavelength is increasedE. The sensitivity is reduced

C. The beam width in the near field is increased

From a safety standpoint, which one of the following methods is best?A. Low transmit output and high receiver gainB. High transmit output and low receiver gainC. High near gain and low far gainD. Low near gain and high far gainE. High reject and high transmitter output

A. Low transmit output and high receiver gain

The relative output of an US instrument is calibrated in dB and the operator increases the output by 60dB. The beam intensity is increased by which of the following?A. 5%B. 2 timesC. 20 timesD. 100 timesE. 1,000,000 times

E. 1,000,000 times

What is the most typical Doppler shift measured clinically?A. 3.5 MHzB. 3,500,000HzC. 2kHzD. 1,000kHzE. 20,000Hz

C. 2kHz

(True or False) Doppler shifts always occur if the source and receiver are in motion relative to each other?

False

(True or False) Doppler shifts always occur if the source and observer are in motion relative to each other and the angle between the motion and the sound beam is 90 degrees

False

(True or False) Doppler shifts always occur if the source and observer are in motion relative to each other and the angle between the motion and the sound beam is not 90 degrees

True

When the sound source and the receiver are not moving directly towards or away from each other, the ________ of the angle between them enters into the calculation of Doppler shift?A. Average B. SlopeC. SineD. Cosine

D. Cosine

The range equations relates distance from the reflector to ______ and ________?A. Time of flight, distance B. Frequency, wavelength C. Time of flight, propagation speed D. Propagation speed, density

C. Time of flight, propagation speed

In soft tissue:Distance traveled = _________x round trip timeA. Propagation speed B. Wavelength C. Period D. PRF

A. Propagation speed

With the presence of ______ we see more boundaries than there are reflecting surface?A. Reverberations B. Shadowing C. Enhancement D. Arrays

A. Reverberations

What is another name for longitudinal resolution?A. AxialB. DepthC. Lateral D. Transverse

A. Axial andB. Depth

What are the units of longitudinal resolution?A. HertzB. RaylsC. M/sD. Feet

D. Feet

Which of the following is best lateral resolution?A. 15 mmB. 6 mmC. 0.06 cmD. 2 cm

C. 0.06 cm

(True or False) Doppler shifts always occur if the sound source and receiver are in motion?

False

If the spatial pulse length is 10mm, What is axial resolution?A. 0.5cmB. 5cmC. 10mmD. 1cm

A. 0.5cm

What is Fraunhofer?A. FocusB. Near zoneC. Far zoneD. Penetration depth

C. Far zone

If we increase the frequency, the near zone length is?A. Increased B. DecreasedC. Unchanged

A. Increased

If the transducer aperture increases, the lateral resolution at it's smallest dimension is?A. Increased B. DecreasedC. Unchanged

A. Increased

If we increase the transducer diameter, the beam diameter in the far zone is?A. Increased B. DecreasedC. Unchanged

B. Decreased

At the focus, the beam diameter is _________ the transducer diameter?A. Equal toB. HalfC. Double D. one fourth

B. Half

Lateral resolution can be improved by?A. Increasing gain B. Decreasing gainC. FocusingD. Smoothing

C. Focusing

(True or False) The digital scan converter has a number of pixels assigned to each bit.

False

The more bits per pixel?A. The better the resolution B. The higher the pixel density C. The more shades of grayD. Higher reliability

C. The more shades of gray

The more pixels per inch?A. The better the temporal resolution B. The better is the spatial resolution C. The more shades of gray D. The higher reliability

B. The better the spatial resolution

Which of the following is the first adjustment made when an entire images is too dark?A. Output power B. Decomposition C. RejectD. Gain

D. Gain

What is the elimination of voltage that do not exceed a certain level? A. GainB. Decomposition C. Reject D. Demodulation

C. Reject

What is the name of the receiver function that corrects for attenuation?

Compensation

The process of changing gray scale is called?

Dynamic range

If the lines per frame is increased while the imaging depth is unchanged then?A. Frame rate increase B. Number of shades of gray decrease C. The frame rate decreasesD. This cannot happen

C. The frame rate decreases

(True or False) A mirror image artifact can appear along side of the true anatomy?

False

Enhancement, multipath and side lobes results in?A. Image distortion B. Clearer imagesC. Artifacts D. Resolution problems

C. Artifacts

The propagation speed of US in the AIUM test object is?A. 1 m/sB. 1.54 m/sC. 1.54 mm/usD. 1 km/s

C. 1.54 mm/us

if wires in an AIUM test object do not appear in the same place as on the display, What is amiss? A. Registration accuracy B. Dynamic range accuracy C. Near gainD. Gray scale dynamic range

A. Registration accuracy

How many data bits are needed to represent 46 gray shades?A. 46B. 5C. 6D. 8

C. 6

The Fresnel zone is the?A. FocusB. Near zoneC. Far zone D. Penetration depth

B. Near zone

❤ Which of the following is associated with cavitation?A. Thermal indexB. Snell's lawC. Avagadro's numberD. Mechanical index

D. Mechanical index

Which of the following best describes the mechanistic approach to study of bioeffects?A. Cause effect B. Exposure response C. Risk benefit D. Causation reaction E. Effect microstreaming

A. Cause effect

Which of the following best describes the empirical approach to the study of bioeffects?A. Cause effect B. Exposure response C. Risk benefit D. Causation reaction E. Effect microstreaming

A. Cause effect

The interaction of microscopic bubbles and ultrasound form the basis for cavitation bioeffects. Which of the following forms of cavitation are most likely to produce microstreaming in the intracellular fluid and shear stresses?A. Stable cavitation B. Normal cavitation C. Transient cavitation D. Inertial cavitation E. Active cavitation

A. Stable cavitation

The consolidation of many images into a single frame best describes which of the following?A. Dynamic range B. Fill in interpolation C. Phase quadratureD. Persistence

D. Persistence

What artifacts is created by an object that is located deeper than the image?A. Range ambiguity B. Shadowing C. SpeckleD. Section thickness

A. Range ambiguity

Which of the following will eliminate range ambiguity artifacts?A. Increase wall filterB. Coded excitation C. Lower frequency transducer D. Frequency compounding

B. Coded excitation

Which of the following will eliminate range ambiguity artifacts?A. Increase wall filterB. Imaging deeperC. Lower frequency transducer D. Frequency compounding

B. Imaging deeper

Which of the following will eliminate range ambiguity artifacts?A. Raising the PRFB. Lowering the PRFC. Lower frequency transducer D. Frequency compounding

B. Lowering the PRF

Identify one of the advantages of coded excitation?A. Improved contrast resolution B. Improved lateral resolution C. Improved temporal resolution D. Shorter PRP

A. Improved contrast resolution

All of the following are true of normal cavitation except?A. Harmful bioeffects are commonly observed B. It is also known as interial cavitation C. Only 10% increase in pressure is needed to convert to this from stable cavitation D. Temperature in the thousands of degrees are created E. It is consistent with shock waves

A. Harmful bioeffects are commonly observed

Where does coded excitation originate?A. The demodulatorB. The flux capacitor C. The transducer D. The pulser

D. The pulser

Which of the following has the greatest output power?A. B-modeB. Gray scale imaging C. CW DopplerD. Pulsed Doppler

D. Pulsed Doppler

❤ You enter a hospital room to perform an ultrasound exam. Which of the following should you do first?A. Check the room numberB. Ask the nurse to confirm patient nameC. Ask the patient's visitors to step outD. Politely check the patient's wristband for identification

D. Politely check the patient's wristband for identification

❤ You encounter a patient that does not speak English. Which of the following is best to obtain consent?A. Call for hospital interpreters B. Use sign language C. Obtain it from a bilingual family member who is in the roomD. Point to the signature line of the consent form and have the patient sign it

A. Call for hospital interpreters

The creation of an image by scanning from different angles best describes?A. Spatial compounding B. Fill in interpolation C. Phase quadratureD. Persistence

A. Spatial compounding

❤ What is the meaning of a thermal index = 3?A. Tissue temperature may rise 3 degrees Fahrenheit B. Tissue temperature will rise 3 degrees Celsius C. Tissue temperature may rise 3 degrees Celsius D. Microbubbles 3mm in diameter will burst

C. Tissue temperature may rise 3 degrees Celsius

Identify one of the advantages of coded excitation?A. Penetration B. Improved lateral resolution C. Improved temporal resolution D. Shorter PRP

A. Penetration

Which of these boundries will create the strongest reflection?A. Air-lungB. Air-soft tissue C. Air-bloodD. Soft tissue -blood

B. Air-soft tissue

Which of these boundaries will create the weakest reflection?A. Air-lungB. Air-soft tissue C. Air-bloodD. Soft tissue -blood

D. Soft tissue-blood

An object is located at a depth of 10cm. The imaging depth is 7cm. At what depth will a reflection from the object appear on the image?A. 10cmB. 7cmC. 17cmD. 3cm

D. 3cm

Which of the following modalities has the greatest output power?A. Gray scaleB. Pulsed DopplerC. Continuous wave DopplerD. Elastography

A. Gray scale

How often should electrical safety checks be performed on a endocavitary transducer?A. RoutinelyB. Weekly C. DailyD. Before each exam

D. Before each exam

Ultrasound physics is nothing to fear and can almost be fun if you remember to?A. Pay your duesB. Pay the piperC. Pray