Pharmacology Chapter 1

Who is John Jacob Abel

father of American pharmacologyfounded first pharmacology department at University of Michigan in 1980


prevention of disease and treatment of suffering


application of drugs for treating diseases


chemical agent capable of producing biologic responses w/n the body

what is a drug called after it has been administered



- agents naturally produced in animal cells, by microorganisms, or by the body- created in a labEx. hormones, natural blood products and components, vaccines, interferons

biosimilar drugs

drugs that are synthesized drugs that are closely related to biologic medications similar biologic medications are referred to as reference products no required to undergo the same rigorous clinical testing

complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)

therapeutic therapy that involve natural plant extracts, herbs, vitamins, mineralssupplemented with physical therapy, massage, and acupuncture

therapeutic classification

drugs based on usefulness in treating diseases or disordersex. anticoagulant (influence blood clotting)antihypertensive (lower blood pressure)

pharmacologic classification

refers to the way a drug works at the molecular level (mechanism of action)ex. diuretic (lowers plasma volume)calcium channel blocker (blocks heart calcium channels)angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (blocks hormonal activity

prototype drug

well-understood drug model with which other drugs in its representative class are compared

chemical name

assigned using standard nomenculture established by IUPAC

generic name

assigned by U.S. Adopted Name Councilless complicated and easier to remember than chemical names

trade/brand name

assigned by the company marketing the drug Ex. Motrin, Advil

combination drugs

includes 2 or more active ingredients combined for a single does Ex. piperacillin and tazobactam (Zosyn) which treat moderate to severe bacterial infections

Over the Counter

- do not require an order/prescription- obtained more easily for the patients- no appointments needed- may react with food, herbals, prescribed drugs, or other OTC drugs- nurses should obtain a complete history and provide teachings

trade names vs. generic equivalents

- trade names are granted to pharmaceutical companies for 17 years, they set the prices - when rights end, other pharm companies market the generic drug for less money- dosages may be identical, but formulations are always the same


ability of the drug to reach its target cells and produce its effect may be affected by inert ingredients and tablet compressionanything that affects absorption of a drug, or it distribution to the target cells, can affects the drug action - providers may write some drugs as "do not substitute with generic

what is the main difference between therapeutic and pharmacologic classification?

therapeutic classification is a method or organizing drugs based on their therapeutic usefulness in treated a particular disease. Pharmacologic classification refers to how a drug works at the molecular, tissue, and body system levels.

what is a prototype drug, and how does it differ from other drugs in the came class

exhibit typical or essential features of drugs within a specific class. By learning the characteristics of the prototype drug, students may better anticipate the actions and adverse effects of other drugs in the same class

explain why a patient might seek treatment from an OTC drug instead of a more effective prescription drug

OTC medications do not require the patient to see a healthcare provider to write a prescription for the drug, saving time and cost for an office visit. OTC medications are also readily available in a variety of settings than are prescription drugs. patients often think they can effectively treat themselves and may believe that OTC medications do not have as many side affects as prescription drugs.

a generic-equivalent drug may be legally substituted for a trade-name medication unless the medication is on a negative formulary or requested by the prescriber or patient. What advantages does this substitution have for the patient? What disadvantages might be caused by the switch?

advantages of a generic drug includes cost savings to the patient and the fact that the name will remain the same, regardless of which company makes the drug, however, generic drug formularies may be different, the inert ingredients may be somewhat different and consequently may affect the ability of the drug to reach the target calls and produce and effect

what are biosimilar drugs? how do they differ from generic drugs

biosimilar drugs are highly similar to biologic medication that have already received FDA approval. they are chemically synthesized and are not required to undergo the same rigorous preclinical and clinical testing as their reference products. to be approved they must prove to the FDA that the drug differs very little from the approved reference product. this includes having the same route or administration, dosage forms, and mechanism of action. they should not be called generic medication because they are not duplicate copies of original medication