Exercise 2

List all characteristics of an organism (6)

Responsiveness, metabolism, growth, differentiation, and reproduction


all chemical reactions in the body


breaking down molecules (proteins into amino acids)


Uses amino acids to build new oroteins


Reaction to a change inside or outside the body


Development and specialization of a cell


Form new cells for growth and repair; produce a new individual


Coordination of muscle groups; moving leg or white blood cells moving to infected tissue


increase in size


increase in cell number


increase in cell size

List the 3 germ layers

Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

Epithelial tissues are made of which germ layers

Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

Connective and most muscle tissues are made of which germ layers


Nervous tissues are made from which germ layers


List all 4 types of tissues

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

Characteristics of epithelial tissue(7)

Create coverings/linings of the bodyNeed to be continuous; create a barrier Free/apical surface;next to emptinessBasal surface; connected to something Avascular; no blood supplyHighly mitosis; replaces lost tissueGlandular epithelium creates endocrine and exocrine glands

Endocrine gland

Releases secretions directly into bloodstream

Exocrine gland

Releases secretions into empty area (skin, lumen, ducts)

List the 3 layers of epithelial tissue

Simple, stratified, pseudostratified

Simple layers

1 cell layer

Stratified layers

2 or more cell layers

Pseudostratified layers

Single layer of cells, looks like multiple layers

List the 4 shapes of epithelial tissues

Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, transitional

Describe squamous cells

flattened, thin cells; "fried egg

Describe cuboidal cells

boxy, square cells; view in lateral

Describe columnar cells

long, rectangular cells; view in lateral

Describe transitional cells

Irregular shape; changes as it stretches

How to identify simple squamous epithelium

Thin layer of cells, "fried egg", visible nucleus; tightly packed together

Functions and location of simple squamous epithelium

Function: Serous membrane; secretion, filtration, and gas diffusionLocation: kidneys, lining of blood vessels, endothelium, alveolar air sacsGas diffusion- lungs, blood

Alveolar air sacs function

Extract oxygen from the air and out into blood; dumps co2

How to identify simple cuboidal epithelium

Thicker layers; can contain cilia

Functions and location of simple cuboidal epithelium

Functions: Secretions and absorptionLocation: Kidneys (tubules)

How to identify simple columnar epithelium

Contains goblet cells; can contain cilia; contains microvilli

Functions and location of simple columnar epithelium

Functions: Secrete mucus and absorptionLocation: small intestine

How to identify pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Cilia present; goblet cells

Function and location of pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Function: traps bad things in the airLocation: trachea

How to identify stratified squamous epithelium(non/keratinized)

Keratinized: thick layers of squamous cells; LACK a nucleus Nonkeratinized: Apagal surface; thin flat squamous cells; thick multiple layers, NUCLEUS is present

Functions and locations of stratified squamous epithelium(non/keratinized)

Keratinized: waterproof protection; located in epidermis of skin, hair/skin/nailsNonkeratinized: protection for wet areas; located in oral cavity, esophagus, vagina

How to identify transitional epithelium

Stratified, apical surface and basil surface

Function and location of transitional epithelium

Functions: stretchLocation: bladder, lining of urinary system

Name the 4 types of membranes

mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial

Function and location of mucous membrane

Function: traps things, to either absorb or discardLocation: respiratory, digestive, urinary tract

Function and location of serous membrane

Function: creates fluid Location: lines body cavity, pleural, peritoneum, pericardium


pertaining to the internal organs


Pertaining to body cavity

Function and location of cutaneous membrane

Function: protection, prevent water lossLocation: in epidermis and surface of body

Function and location of synovial membrane

line moving, provides nutrients to joint cavitieslocated in joints