bio final lab exam

emulsifier

chemicals that allow lipids to mix with polar solvents

emulsion

dispersion of the oil or other lipids into miniscule droplets dispersed throughout water

where are bile salts produced, stored, and released into?

produced in liver, stored in gallbladder, and released into small intestine

function of bile salts in digestion?

required for digestion and absorption, helps break down fat into fatty acids

explain the role of pancreatic lipase in digestion

secreted by pancreas, breaks down fat, so they can be absorbed by intestines

what pH do triglycerids have?

close to neutral pH, 8.4

what pH do fatty acids have?

low

why do you test for lipids by smearing the unknowns on paper towel?

the fats will go through the paper and leave a grease stain

why do you also test a drop of plain water and a drop of oil?

control variables, oil will grease paper, water will not absorb into the paper, can see what a negative control looks like

list the three main monosaccharides you might consume

fructose, galactose, and glucose

list three main disaccharides you might consume

sucrose, lactose, and maltose

three main polysaccharides you might consume

starch, glycogen, and cellulose

what are proteins made of

made of hundreds of thousands of amino acids

why are you including water and albumin in the test for proteins

to see what positive and negative controls look like

urogenital papilla

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larynx

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trachea

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thyroid gland

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jugular vein

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pericardial sac

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heart

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esophagus

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diaphragm

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liver

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stomach

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pancreas

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mesenteries

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umbilical cord

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cecum

...

ascending and descending colon

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gallbladder

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bile duct

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spleen

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duodenum, jejunum, ileum

stomach to large intestine

spiral colon

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peritoneum

lines abdominal cavity

kidney

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ureter

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urinary bladder

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vas deferens

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the excretory system in humans filters the blood and removes

nitrogenous wastes

the most prevalent waste removed by the kidneys is

urea

the nervous system, endocrine system and liver all work with the kidneys to maintain:

fluid balance, pH balance, and electrolyte levels

the production of blood filtration is

urine; a mixture consisting of urea, salts, and water

urine is produced in the

nephrons

Urine passes into the

collecting ducts

collecting ducts merge to form the

renal pelvis

connected to the urinary bladder

ureters

the blood vessels and ureter pass through the outer membrane and enter the kidney at the

renal hilum

renal artery

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renal vein

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hilum

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renal cortex

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renal medulla

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renal columns

between renal pyramids

renal pyramids

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renal papilla

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renal sinus

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minor calyces

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major calyces

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renal pelvis

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