Psychology Chapter 1

Psychology

Is the study of the thinking and behavior of organisms

Behavior

Is any action that other people can observe or measure. This includes movement, voluntary, and involuntary. I.e., heartbeat, digestion, walking, running.

Cognitive Activites

Thinking, perceptions, dreams, memories, etc.

Emotions or FeelingsInsideReactions

Psychologists also study peoples ________ or ________. This gives a clue as to what is going on _______ the person through outward _________.

Psychological ConstructsEx: Dream Interpretation

Used to learn more about human behavior. They are used to talk about something that you are unable to see, touch, or measure directly. Ex: ?

Goals of PsychologyPsychologists

____________ - scientists want to observe, describe, explain, predict, and control the events they study. __________ want to do the same thing.

Social ScienceSocial Sciences

Psychology is a ____________. Other __________________ are history, anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology.

Human SocietyInteract

Social sciences deal with people, __________ and how they ___________.

Natural SciencesPhysicalHuman Brain

________ like Biology, Chemistry, and Physics deal with the _______ world. The function of the ___________ is of much interest to Psychologists.

Research Techniques1. Conducting surveys and Experiments2. Collecting and analyzing data3. Drawing conclusions

Psychologists use the same _____________ as other sciences. They follow the steps of....

Surveys and Experiments

Widely used research methods are _______ and _______.

Survey

Data collected through asking questions of people in a certain group

ExperimentEx: Will a monkey eat a banana with Chocolate on it?

_________ is manipulation of variables in a controlled environment to record their affect on each other.

Human BehaviorAnimal BehaviorAnimalHumansCauseUniqueCompared

Most psychologists are interested in ___________ only but some do study ______________. Some believe that ________ research can be useful to _______ also in determining the _______ of behaviors. Some argue that humans are too ______ for any other species to be _______ to.

PhysicalSame PurposeSeparationPeoplePerson will not be harmed (Ex: Electric shock therapy, brain dissection)

Some ________ research can be useful when animals and human body parts serve the __________. _______ comes when morality, love, and values are to be studied. Research on _______ is also much more difficult because you have to guarantee the ______________.

Theory

A statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen like they do

PrincipleEx: better grades with more studying

A rule or a lawEx: ?

Behavior Thoughts and Biological Processes

Psychological theories may concern _________ and ___________.

PredictTheoriesAccurate

Useful theories allow psychologists to ________ behavior and thoughts. _______ can be revised and refined to be more ___________.

UsedSlightly Modified

If a theory proves to be wrong, it is no longer ______. If there is some positive use and just need to be _________, this is done also.

Psychologists; scientific research

_______, like other scientists, only count research as useful if it is supported by _________.

Clinical Psychologists

Make up the largest group of psychologists

Psychological ProblemsSeriousStress, relationships, drug abuseTests and interviewsProblems

Clinical Psychologists help people with ____________ from anxiety to _______ disorders like schizophrenia. They help people deal with _______, __________, __________, etc. They use psychological ______ and ________, and then help clients work out their ________.

Clinical Psychologists; Psychiatrists

___________ do not prescribe medicine. ___________ prescribe medicine.

Counseling Psychologists

Mostly deal with adjustment problems rather than serious disorders

Tests and InterviewsColleges, Businesses, and Testing Centers

Counseling psychologists' methods include ______ and _______. These are often found in _______, _________, and __________.

School Psychologists

Assist students with placement in proper classes, administer placement tests, identify problem learners, etc.

Educational Psychologists

Focus on student learning but on a larger scale such as an entire school system. They are concerned with issues that affect children's learning.

1. Motivation, Emotion, Creativity, Intelligence2. Cultural Factors, Beliefs, Religion3. Instructional Methods used in the Class-Room

Educational Psychologists study how the following affects children in regards to learning:1. ?2. ?3. ?

Standardized Tests

Educational Psychologists may assist in developing __________.

Developmental Psychologists

Study the changes that take place throughout a persons life span

1. Physical 2. Emotional3. Cognitive4. Social

(Developmental Psychologists) Changes can be:1. __________ - height weight2. __________ - self esteem3. __________ - learning right from wrong4. __________ - relationships with parents, peers, spouse

Heredity and EnvironmentAdolescence

Developmental Psychologists also try to sort our the influence of ______ and _________ on development. ___________ is a time of focus for this type of psychologist.

Social Psychologists

Study people's behavior in social situations

PersonalitySocial

_________ psychologists search within the person for the cause of behavior and _______ psychologists focus external influences and their affect on behavior.

Given SettingPhysical and PsychologicalGroupBehavior Prejudice and Discrimination Aggressive or Helping

Social psychologists focus on:1. Men and women's behavior in a _________.2. _______ and _________ factors that attract people to each other3. Why people conform to a _______4. Changing _______ when in a group5. Reason for _______ and _______ within and among groups6. Key to _______ or ________ behavior

Experimental Psychologists

Perform research on basic processes such as nervous system function, sensation, perception, learning, memory, etc.

Biological ReasonsBiological ChangesBiological Psychologists

Experimental psychologists seek the answers to _________ for behavior, like waking up to an alarm. Also, what causes hunger? Some focus on _________ like hormones and the resulting anxiety. These are ___________.

Basic Research

Research for no immediate purpose and is done for its own sake

Industrial and Organizational Psychologists

Focus on people and work

Hire and RetainEnvironmentCounsel, Screen, and AssistMaximum

Industrial and Organizational Psychologists help companies _______ and ______ employees in a productive _________. They _______, _______, and ______ in employee satisfaction for ________ work output.

Environmental Psychologists

Focus on ways that the environment and people affect each other

EnvironmentalWeatherBuildings and Roads

________ Psychologists ask "Does smog make people irritable?" & "does traffic cause aggression?" They also research how _______ affects us, and how _______ and ______ effectively handle our needs.

Consumer Psychologists

Study shopper behavior. Work with advertisers and store managers to create an environment pleasing to shoppers

Merchandise SalesEx: Milk and Bread at the back of the store. Impulse items at register.

Consumer Psychologists strategically place _______ in the store to get more ______.

Forensic Psychologists

Assess criminals for competency to stand trial for a crime

Criminal Justice SystemCriminal

Forensic Psychologists work in the _________. They also explain how certain kinds of psychological problems can lead to _______ behavior.

1. Assist in police officer selection2. Help police deal with stress3. Train officers to deal with dangerous situations, suicides, hostage crisis, etc.

(Forensic Psychologists) Duties include:1. ?2. ?3. ?

Health Psychologists

Examine how behavior and thought are related to physical health

DoctorsHealthy

Health Psychologists investigate why some people follow _____ advice and some do not. Also, why some people live _____ lifestyles and some do not.

Plato

A student of Socrates in Ancient Greece more than 2,000 years ago took his teachers advice and coined the phrase "know thyself". Psychology uses this as central part of its purpose.

Introspection

Socrates used the term _______ - "looking within" is self examination of thoughts and feelings

Aristotle outlined- How current experiences remind us of things which happened to us in the past- How the face of a loved one brings feelings of security- How waking thoughts lead to dreams and daydreams

Another of Plato's students, ___________ the laws of associationism which raised many questions and observations and observations about human behavior such as:

TheorizedSupernatural ForcesPunishmentConfusion and Madness

Other ancient Greeks ______ that bizarre human behavior was due to ____________. Generally the Gods were thought to control much of the ______ of humans. _______ and ______ were thought to be punishment from the Gods.

HippocratesBiological

_______ was the first to suggest the behavioral problems were caused by abnormalities in the brain. this linked ________ factors to behavior influenced Psychology for more than 2,000 years.

Father of medicine

Hippocrates is considered the ________.

Demonic PossessionDevil

(Middle Ages) Most Europeans thought that agitation and confusion were signs of ____________ as punishment for sins and deals with the ______.

SalemDeepSmeltingFloatSinkPossessedPureDeath

(Middle Ages) ______ witch trials were carried during this time. The test for determining possession was to throw the person in ______ water. This is based on the _______ process. Impure metals _____ and pure ______. They applied this to people as well, if they floated they were considered to be _______ and if they sand they were _____. Unfortunately, both resulted in ______.

Psychological LabsScientific Methods

(Middle Ages) In the late 1800's _________ were established in Europe and the US. Behavior was studied using ___________.

1879Wilhelm Wundt

(Middle Ages) The year Psychology is thought to have begun was ______. This was when ___________ established his lab in Leipzig Germany.

Wilhelm Wundt

_____________(founded structuralism) : 1832 - 1920

Objective SensationsSubjective Sensations

Wundt put in two categories:____________ - sight, taste, etc. which accurately reflects the outside world____________ - emotions and mental images

IntrospectionObjective & Sensations

Using _________, Wundt and his students carefully examined and reported their experiences. Believed the HUMAN mind functioned by combining ___________ and ____________ sensations.

Father of Psychology

Wundt is considered the _______________.

William JamesJames"Stream of Consciousness"Psychology Textbook

_____________ : (1842 - 1910) - Harvard University professor theorized that conscious experience cannot be as Structuralists believed. _______ thought that human experience is a continuous "___________". He published the first ________ (The Principals of Psychology) in 1890.

FunctionalismAutomaticallyEx: Driving

_________ - Concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment. Once they adapt, behaviors are repeated if they are successful. At first, they require attention and eventually are repeated enough to be done ________ without much thought.

1. Introspection Introspection AND behavioral observation in the lab2. What are the elements of the psychological process What is the purpose of mental and behavioral processes?

Functionalism differed from structuralism in these ways:1. Structuralism = ? Functionalism = ?2. Structuralists question: ? Functionalists: ?

KeptDroppedEx: study harder to get good grades or keep asking a date and get shot down until you quit asking

Functionalists theorized that adaptive behavior patterns are ______ if they are successful and ______ if they are not.

Successful ConcentrationAutomaticHabitsThinkEx: Driving Home

________ action are repeated until they become habits. First it takes ______ and then eventually they become ________. ______ make us able to complete tasks almost automatically and not ______ out each one in detail.

BehaviorismJohn B. Watson

_________ psychology is the scientific study of observable behavior. __________ founded it.

LearningConsciousnessConsciousnessStudiedOBSERVABLE BEHAVIORScientific Way

Watson agreed with FUNCTIONALISTS focus on _____________ but did not agree that a construct like ____________ could be studied. He saw __________ as a private event, only known to the individual and could therefore not be ________. Therefore he theorized that only ____________ could be studied and measured in a _______________.

B.F. Skinner

___________: (1904 - 1990) - Harvard University psychologist added the concept of reinforcement to psychology

AnimalsReinforcedEx: Teaching animals to perform tasks

Skinner did lab work with _______ and learned that it was more likely to repeat an action if the action was _________ or rewarded.

Reinforcement

Skinner felt that humans could be taught to behave in certain ways using _____________.

GermanContext influences interpretation of information

_________ psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Koehler focused on how ____________________.

1920's"Shape or form

In the ______, the school of Gestalt Psychology was founded. Gestalt means "_________

Shape or MeaningStructuralists ideaObservable BehaviorMechanical

(the Gestalt School) It is the idea that perceptions are more than the sums of their parts, rather they are wholes that give _______ or _______ to the parts.1. Therefore, Gestalt rejects the ____________ that experience can be broken down into parts2. Reject the idea that only _________ should be studied and that learning is __________.

ActivePurposeMechanical Repetition

Gestalt believed that learning is _______ and with ________, and that insight plays more of a part in learning than _________.

InsightAHA

_______ is reorganizing perception for problem solving. It's the ______!!

Sigmund FreudPSYCHOANALYSIS

__________ (my boyfriend); 1856-1939 He was a Viennese physician. Founded __________.

PsychoanalysisScandalous

__________ emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts in determining human behavior. Freud' s theories were not widely accepted when they were first presented. They were considered _______ for the time.

Popular CultureEx: Freudian Slip. A slip of the tongue that reveals your unconscious thoughts.

Freud' s theories have become part of the _________. Ex: Freudian Slip

LabCase StudiesOut of TouchPrimary Motivator

All theorists before Freud conducted research in a _____. Freud conducted _________ which were in depth conversation with his subjects. He realized how _____________ we are with our unconscious urges, sexual feelings, etc. He came to the conclusion that the unconscious was the _________ in behavior.

Psychodynamic ThinkingUrges

__________ - this assumed that most of what exists in an individuals mind is unconscious and is made up of conflicting _______, wishes and impulses

Satisfying DesiresInappropriate

Freud felt human behavior was driven by __________ even though some are socially ________.

Modern PsychologistsModified

__________ do not label themselves as the functionalists and structuralists did. Those theories as well as Freud's theory have been _________.

BiologicalEvolutionaryCognitiveHumanisticPsychoanalytic Learning Sociocultural

The modern perspectives are _______, ________, ________, ________, _________, _________, and _______ perspectives.

The Biological PerspectiveNervous SystemBehavior

_______________ - emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior. It's roots are in associationism. The assumption is that thoughts, fantasies, thoughts are coming from the __________. The brain's activity is thought to be responsible for our _______.

CATPETActiveEx: brain lights up in one area when we listen to musicBehavior

Tests such as the _____ scan, _____ scan show which part of the brain is ________ when certain thoughts are going on. They also believe that chemicals, hormones and the genes and glands they affect, are responsible for _________.

HeredityGenes

Genes are the basic units of ________. Biological psychologists study the influence of _______ of personality, mental health, and behavior patterns.

The Evolutionary Perspective

Focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes

Charles DarwinReproduce

_____________ - Theorized that in the quest for survival the organisms that adapt to the environment have a greater chance of surviving to maturity and could ________.

Aggression

__________ particularly as well as other types of behaviors are believed to be inherited and influence behavior.

The Cognitive PerspectiveHuman Nature

__________ - emphasizes the role that thoughts play in behavior. They study mental processes to understand ___________.

Mind"Know Thyself"Structuralism, Functionalism, and GestaltCognitive Perspective

(Cognitive Perspective) They study what we refer to as the ______. This theory has roots in the Socratic "________". It also pulls from ________, _________, and _________. Each theory has parts which the _____________ has interest in.

Computers and the human mindLong Term MemoryFilesClues to Spark Memory

_________ and the ___________ store information in a similar manner. The informations is processed and is stored in ________________. Where a computer stores in _________, humans use _________ to spark ________.

TheoristsValues, Perceptions, and Choices

Cognitive _________ believe that peoples behavior is influenced by _______, ____________, and __________.

The Humanistic Perspective

___________ - stresses the human ability for self fulfillment and the importance of consciousness, self awareness and the ability to make choices

Individual experiencePsychologyGoodBehaviorBad ImpulsesBehavioristsScientific MethodInner Thoughts

Humanistic psychology considers _________ to be the most important aspect of ________. It views people at basically _______ and that people have the ability to choose their own _______ and manage __________. Critics of this theory, mostly __________, believe that _________ should be focused on and not the ___________ which cannot be observed or measured.

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

based on Freud's theories

The Psychoanalytic Perspective

______________ - stresses the influence of the unconscious on behavior. In the 1940-50's this method dominated psychotherapy and influenced psychology and the arts

DominantApproachUnconscious SexualAggressive ImpulseConscious choice and Self Dirrection

(The Psychoanalytic Perspective) It is no longer _______ but most theories hold aspects of psychoanalytic ________. Freud focused heavily on the ____________ and ______________, modern psychoanalytic theorists focus on _________ and _________.

FrustrationDestructive Behavior

(The Psychoanalytic Perspective) Freud believed that the pent up ______ from everyday life come out in various ways in behavior and left to run wild, lead to _____________.

The Learning Perspective Learning

___________ - emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior. Many believe that _________ is essential in observing, describing, explaining, predicting, and controlled behavior.

Traditional Behaviorists Conscious ChoiceKNOWS but what it DOESBehaviorists SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY1. Learn intentionally through observation2. Expectations and values influence behavior

(The Learning Perspective) _________ such as John B. Watson think that people react based on previous learned behavior and not from _________. They are not concerned with what an organism ______ but what it_______. _________ focus on environmental influence, repetition, and reinforcement.In contrast the ______________ suggest that people can change their environment or create new ones.1. ?2. ?

Direct ExperienceObservationEX: people behave a certain way when they expect to be rewarded

Learning theorists believe that behavior is learned by _________ or _________.EX:

Social Learning TheoristsCertain circumstances call for itEX: responding to provocation with hostility, or responding positively when treated well

____________ like cognitive theorists, believe that behavior comes when _______________. EX:

The sociocultural perspective

_______________ - studies the influence of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on behavior and thought

ETHNIC GROUP

_________ - share culture, race, language, or other common history

EthnicityEthnic Minorities ResearchBilingualismEthnic DifferencesHealth ProblemsPrejudiceSociocultural Perspcetive

Psychological issues related to ________:1. Inclusion of people from various _______ in psychological _________ studies2. __________3. _________ in test scores4. __________ differing in ethnic groups from obesity to high blood pressure5. __________The __________ recognizes how these differences can affect behavior.

GenderGendersAnatomically and SociallyWhite MenFlawedAmerican Society

(The sociocultural perspective) _______ is also studied because culture places expectations specific to certain _________. There are differences ________ and ________ between the sexes and those affect behavior. Past studies only took into account _________ as being the norm. We know now that those studies are seriously _______ since we have such diversity in all aspects of __________.