Why is discretion in the exercise of police authority commonplace and often necessary?
Police work often requires independent judgement in individual cases.
Traditional police training methods may actually...
inhibit the development of critical thinking and problem-solving abilites.
What is the intrinsic nature of a dilemma?
It doesn't lend itself to simple solutions. Dilemma's result in negative as well as positive consequences.
4 techniques involved with Ethical Decision Making are...
Limit setting, Consideration of ethical principles, Benefit maximization, Equal respect.
What is limit setting?
Communication to others of what one's personal limits are prior to any involvement in a potentially compromising situation.
What is Benefit Maximization?
Projection of potential and probable consequences of any decision. The appropriate ethical decision is the one that will probably lead to the most benefit for the greatest number of people.
Ethical leadership cannot be viewed as...
a linear process through which decisions are made.
The relationship between discretion and ethical decision making can be described in what two term?
Process (how to resolve a situation) and Outcomes (goals to be achieved).Discretion comes down to two decisions. What to achieve and how to achieve it.
Define Problem Solving.
A comprehensive planning process used to move a situation from and unsatisfactory to a desirable condition.(Problem Solving involves the creation and discovery of alternatives and requires numerous decisions)
All problems consist of what three components?
- An existing condition that is unsatisfactory.- Goals.- Obstacles that inhibit goal achievement.
Is problem solving consistent with traditional incident-driven policing?
No.Traditional policing is too reactive and superficial. The "Community Problem", rather than a specific incident should be the focus of police work.
What is a "Community Problem"?
Two or more incidents of a similar nature within a community.
What is the Delphi technique?
Several experts or individuals provide input on an issue or problem and ultimately arrive at a consensus on desirable alternatives, priorities, and goals.
When might the Delphi Technique be most appropriate problem solving and decision making vehicle?
When emotions are high, or when a few members of a problem-solving group tend to dominate the process.
The extensive process and lengthy nature of the Delphi Technique make it more appropriate for what kind of problems?
Major problems for which the solution will have a long lasting effect.
What are the two general approaches to problem solving?
- The Convergent approach: Solve problems systematically by utilizing a series of logical steps- The Divergent approach: A less structured method that calls on intuition, innovation, and spontaneity.
When would each approach be most appropriate?
Convergent when a single solution is required. Divergent when multiple solutions are necessary.
Problem-oriented Policing" places high value on new responses that are...
- Preventative- Not dependent on the use of the criminal justice system- Engage other public agencies and the community
The SARA problem solving model sands for what?
Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment.
Under SARA, Scanning involves...
The identification of patterns or consistent problems within a community. Risk and Needs assessments are appropriate tools from problem identification.
What is the difference between a Risk Assessment and a Needs Assessment?
- Risk Assessments predict the likelihood of a negative outcome.- Needs Assessments identify unmet needs.
Under SARA, Analysis involves...
an intensive probe into all the characteristics and factors contributing to a problem.
What are the three sides of the problem analysis triangle?
Offender, Victim, Location.All sides of the triangle must be present for a problem to occur. Therefore, the elimination of any one elements may solve the problem.
Under SARA, Response involves...
Implementing solutions.To be effective, Responses to crime and disorder problems should impact at least two sides of the problem analysis triangle.
Standardized solutions (replicas of what was done elsewhere) are...
Under SARA, Assessment involves...
Qualitative and quantitative measures used to assess the impact of a response.
Assessment should be both...
forward-looking and after-the-fact.Assessment must also be viewed as a continuous thread that runs through all stages of the SARA process.
What is probably the most difficult step of the SARA model?
What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
A management philosophy that focuses on satisfying customers through empowering employees to be an active part of continuous quality improvement.
What types of situations lend themselves to group problem-solving?
Ones that develop over extended periods of time, are pervasive within a neighborhood or community, and create a situation win which hasty decisions and actions may have a disastrous impact.
What is group think?
Giving priority to unanimous agreement over reasoned problem solving.
In most situations, the quality of decision making is better and the satisfaction of the participants is higher when what kind of strategy is used?
A consensus strategy.
Is the Delphi Technique an excellent model for consensus building that prevents domination of the group by a few?
what does a "needs map" identify?
Problem areas and deficiencies within a neighborhood.
what does an "asset map" identify?
An inventory of skills and capabilities of a community's residents.
Enforcement-based solutions to problems are likely to be...
short-lived because activities dominated by enforcement actions rarely advance the strategic objectives of community policing.
The barriers to effective problem solving in the police service can be summarized as:
Lack of Training, Lack of Leadership, Confusion, Lack of Clearly Defined Roles, Lack of Resources, Lack of Technological Support, The Fad Complex, Lack of Legitimacy, Lack of Effective Outcome Assessment.