State board - All need to know terminology


the technique that allows for better haircolor penetration by softening the cuticle; often used prior to haircoloring resistant and/or gray hair


Science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter, and how matter changes under different conditions.

Preliminary strand test

Performed as part of your guest consultation to test how the hair will respond to the chemical application

Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins (hair) that link together to form tiny protein fibers

Peptide Bonds

also known as end bonds; connect amino acids (end to end) that form polypeptides

Polypeptide chain

long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds

Side bonds

Also known as Cross Bonds, connect polypeptide chains side-by-side; responsible for strength and elasticity

Hydrogen bonds

Physical side bond (cross bond) easily broken by water or heat; reforms when hair cools and/or dries

Salt Bonds

Weak physical side bonds (cross bonds) easily broken by change in pH; reform when pH balance is restored

disulifide bond

Strong chemical side bonds that can only be broken by chemical solutions

occupational disease

Any illness caused by overexposure to certain products or ingredients

physical mixture

Consist of two or more types of matter that are blended together, but not chemically altered; each part in the mixture maintains its own properties


When a substance is able to be mixed with another substance


describes two or more liquids that do not mix with each other

Potential hydrogen (PH)

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

pH scale

scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7 to 14 is basic

Chemical relaxing

To chemically alter naturally curly or wavy hair into a straighter form


The process of removing one sulfur atom and replacing it with a disulfide bond

normalizing lotions

solutions with an acidic pH that restore the hair's natural pH after a hydroxide relaxer

Neutralizing shampoo

Used to help to remove any remaining chemicals left in the hair after a chemical relaxer and to restore hair to normal acidic pH

Base cream

Also known as protective base cream; oily cream used to protect the skin and scalp during hair relaxing.


Also known as rebonding, is chemically restoring disulfide bonds to harden into a new shape

Hydroxide neutralization

Also called an acid/alkali neutralization reaction; it neutralizes any remaining alkaline residue left by the hydroxide relaxer and helps to restore the pH of the hair and scalp


The measurement of the thickness or thinness of a liquid that affects how the fluid flows.

Hydroxide relaxer

Relaxers with a high alkaline (pH) content; available in varying formulations

Sodium hydroxide (lye)

A strong alkaline ingredient used in chemical relaxers

Potassium hydroxide / lithium hydroxide

A very strong alkaline ingredient used in chemical relaxers; typically marketed as no-mix, no-lye

Guanidine hydroxide

Relaxer requiring the mixing of two products; advertised as 'no-lye' for sensitive skin

base relaxers

Requires a protective base cream to be applied to the hairline and scalp

no-base relaxers

Do not require the application of a protective base cream (no lye)

Thioglycolate Relaxers

known as 'thio relaxers' by industry standards, are chemical compounds with the additive ingredient ammonia; considered to be a 'no-lye' relaxer, suitable for soft curl reformation

Ammonia thioglycolate (ATG)

A combination of ammonia and thioglycolic acid that creates a reducing agent used in permanent waves and relaxers

Ammonia bisulfite relaxer

A mild, alternative relaxer containing a low pH compatible with thio relaxers


An organic compound that is a colorless, flammable and pungent gas; present in the air and many food and beauty products


Products are manufactured without the use of formaldehyde but could omit a formaldehyde gas upon use


Results from the oxidation of primary alcohols; there are several other chemicals in the class of highly reactive chemical compounds (composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen)

Permanent waving

Chemically rearranging straight hair into a curly or wavy form

Protective cream

A cream barrier applied around the hairline and ears to protect the skin from permanent wave lotions or haircolor


Chemical solution that stops the waving process of a permanent wave; rebuilds the bonds into their new form

Thio neutralization

The process of stopping a permanent wave and reforming the hair into its new curly shape

Preliminary test curl

Determines the required processing time and ensures that the desired curl has been achieved for a permanent wave service

Alkaline waves

also known as cold waves; have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6, use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the reducing agent, and process at room temperature without the addition of heat

glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG)

The main active ingredient in true acid waves

True acid waves

Permanent waves processed with the application of heat that have a pH range between 4.5 to 7; the main ingredient is typically glyceryl monothioglycolate (GMTG); these acid waves process slower than alkaline waves

Acid balanced waves

permanent waves processed without heat that have a pH ranging between 7.0 to 8.2; produce a firmer curl and process more quickly than true acid waves

Endothermic wave

Processed by the application of heat; hood dryer, heat processor

Exothermic wave

Processed by chemical reaction that releases heat; self heating

Ammonia free waves

Use an ingredient other than ammonia to reduce the odor associated with ammonia perms

Concave rods

Perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.

Straight rods

Perm rods that are equal in diameter along their entire length or curling area.

Bender rod

also known as Flexible Rods, are foam-covered perm rods that are easily bent into different shapes and used for permanent waving

Loop rod

also known as a Circle Rod, is a long, plastic rod that is used to create spiral curls

Double flat wrap

Requires hair to be placed between two end papers, one on each side of the hair strand

Book end wrap

Requires only one paper, which is folded in half much like a book

Single flat wrap

Requires only one paper used in conjunction with either the double end or book end wraps

croquignole perm wrap

Wrapping the hair from ends to scalp in overlapping concentric layers

Spiral wrap

consists of wrapping the hair at an angle other than parallel to the length of the rod, which will create a coiling effect of the hair

Base direction

the position of the perm rod horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, within a section and/or parting

Base sections

The subsections located within a larger panel section; the hair is divided into smaller subsections that hold one perm rod each

Base control

also known as Base Placement, is the position of the tool in relation to its base section and is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped

Basic perm wrap

Also known as Straight Set Wrap or 9-Block Wrap, is controlled sections of hair in which perm rods are placed in rectangular-shaped subsections

Curvature perm wrap

Consists of partings that follow the shape of your guests head

Bricklay perm wrap

Perm rods are placed within a staggered pattern of subsections

Weave perm wrap

Wrapping consisting of controlled sections of hair that replaces straight partings with zigzag partings

Piggyback perm wrap

also known as the Double-Rod, is a wrap technique where hair longer than 10 to 12 inches is wrapped on one rod from the mid-shaft to scalp, and the remaining hair is wrapped around a second rod

Soft curl reformation

A chemical texture service that restructures overly curly hair into loose curls or waves


The ability of the hair to absorb any liquid


The capability of the hair strand to stretch and return to its previous form without breaking; elasticity is directly related to the condition of the hair


hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails


a highly soluble chemical element that is an alkaline substance used in the manufacturing of permanent wave lotions and chemical hair relaxers

What do relaxers do to the hair?

Increase the ph

new growth

New hair from the scalp that has not been chemically changed

End papers

Also known as end wraps; absorbent papers used to control the ends of the hair when wrapping and winding hair on perm rods.


Scientific study of hair and its diseases

Release statement

A form affirming that your guest was advised of the potential risks that could result during the requested chemical service

Partial perm wrap

perming technique that provides curl or wave to small areas of the head, creating a natural blending of permed hair into previously permed or non-permed hair


An allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or a substance.

Face shape

Facial form created by individual bone structure and hairline

Facial proportion

The relationship of facial features and shape to each other


An outline of an object when viewed from one side.

Straight profile

Neither convex nor concave; considered the ideal.

Concave profile

The chin and forehead align; the nose appears sunken, creating inward curvature

Convex profile

A receding chin, protruding nose and high hairline; creates strong outward curvature


An area with friends or surrounding a hair design

Curved line

Creates movement, softness and/or waves; a continuously bending line without angles


A combination of lines that outline a shape


Is the Direct correlation of size, distance, amount and the ratio between individual characteristics when compared with the whole


A mirror image from a center point


lack of symmetry


Also known as the focal point of a hair design, is the point or the area that the eye is drawn to at first glance


A repeated pattern in a design


A pleasing arrangement of shapes and lines that incorporates all elements of design

Wet styling

Designing wet hair into a specific shape


Also known as molding, is combing a section of the hair in a circular movement over the surface of the head for the formation of waves or curls


The section of hair that is attached to the scalp


The section of hair between the base and the first turn of the roller/curl

No stem curl

The curl is secured directly on its base; provides the least amount of movement but the greatest amount of curl

Half stem curl

Curl placed half off the base; permits medium movement/curl and gives good control to the hair.

Full stem curl

The curl is secured totally off its base; provides the maximum amount of movement but the least amount of curl


Also known as circle, the end of the hair strand that forms a complete circle for pin curls, roller setting, and or thermal setting


The curl sits completely on its base

Half off base

The curl/roller sits 1/2 off or 1/2 on its base

Off base

The curl sits totally off its base

Volume base

Creates lift, fullness or height in a design

Indentation base

Creates emptiness or flat areas in a design


'C' shapes placed into the hair in alternating directions using the fingers and a comb


also known as Scrunchwaves, are a form of fingerwaves using two combs instead of the fingers to lift the wave up from the head and create a three-dimensional form

Skip wave

Wave pattern that combines fingerwaves and flat pincurls


Involves forcing the hair between the thumb and back of the comb to create tension

Cascade curl

Also known as Stand-Up Pincurl, are small sections of hair where the stem and base are raised from the scalp with the ends turning under, creating mass or fullness known as volume

Barrel curl

normally consists of a rectangular-shaped base used in place of a wet roller application or to support a dry design prior to finishing the style; achieves the same results as a cascade curl but in a larger movement.

Sculpture curls

Also known as Carved Curls, are sculpted by hand, iron or roller, to create texture and/or movement for a style

Ridge curls

flat pin curls following the finger wave's ridge, producing a strong wave pattern in a finished design; alternating rows of ridge curls create what is known as a skip wave.

Hair pressing

Also known as thermal hair straightening, is a method of temporarily straightening curly or uncontrollable hair by means of a heated iron or comb

Soft press

technique of pressing the hair to remove 50 to 60 percent of the curl by applying the thermal pressing comb once on each side of the hair

Medium press

Technique that removes 60 to 75 percent of the curl by applying a thermal pressing comb once on each side of the hair, using slightly more pressure than in the soft press.

Hard press

A hair straightening technique that removes all of the curl by using a thermal pressing comb twice on each side of the hair shaft

Back combing

Also known as cushioning, interlocking, lacing, matting and ratting, is a technique that uses the comb to create a cushion at the base of the scalp, giving height and volume to a design

Back brushing

Also known as ruffing is a technique using a brush that is done on the surface of the hair to achieve a light airy appearance that expands the hair while providing support and structure to the design


Provides the support, texture and movement of final design


also known as Dread locks, form of Natural Hairstyling where hair has grown and intertwined over time; hair is twisted or formed to wrap around itself, creating a rope-like effect.

Hair additions

Natural or synthetic hair attached to the base/scalp area to add length, volume and/or color


Artificial covering for the head consisting of a network of interwoven hair.

hair piece

Small wig or various hair attachments used to cover smaller sections of the head, primarily on the top or crown of the head


Also known as fusion, method of attaching hair with an adhesive agent

Predisposition test

Also known as a Patch Test, is applying a small amount of product on the skin to check for sensitivity and/or an allergic reaction to a product/chemical

Processing test strand

Also known as periodic strand test; determines if the haircolor is absorbing and processing evenly

Color wheel

A support tool for the law of color to visually show how all colors are created

Law of color

System for understanding color relationships.

Primary colors

red, yellow, blue

Secondary colors

Created by mixing two primary colors in equal proportions

tertiary colors

Created by mixing a primary color with a neighboring secondary color

Complementary colors

Created by mixing a primary and a secondary color that are located opposite of each other on the color wheel


Also known as hue; the balance of color.


Also known as Contributing Pigment, is the warm or cool tone seen within the predominant haircolor


The strength of the colors appearance


The middle layer of hair, made up of elongated cells containing melanin and keratin


Innermost layer of the hair


The coloring matter that provides us with the natural color of our hair and skin; also known as pigment


Produces brown to black pigments in the hair


Produces yellow to red pigments in the hair


The degree of lightness or darkness of a color

Level system

System that colorists use to determine the lightness or darkness of a hair color.


Technical term for gray hair

Organic chemistry

The study of living or previously living organisms containing carbon

Inorganic chemistry

The study of not living or never living organisms that do not contain carbon


a substance that has mass and occupies space


the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties


Smallest particle of an element


particle with a positive charge


Particles that have a neutral charge


particle with a negative charge

Ion/ ions

An atom or a group of atoms carrying an electric charge


two or more atoms chemically bonded together

Compound molecules

Also known as compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.


The chemical reaction that occurs when oxygen is released from a substance; this reaction assists in the development of color on the hair


Rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.

Pure substances

Definite chemical and physical properties


Stable mixtures of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases or a combination of these


A substance that is capable of dissolving another substance


A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration


The suspension of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix


A gas with a strong odor, made up of nitrogen and hydrogen


Used to neutralize acids or raise the pH. May be used in place of ammonia because they create less odor

Aniline derivatives

Small compounds, also known as uncolored dye precursors, found in permanent haircolor


Range from 0-6.9


having a pH from 7.1 - 14

Non-Oxidative Haircolor

Temporary colors; no chemical mixing or reaction takes place to produce these colors on the hair

Oxidative hair color

Chemical change, creates a chemical change in the hair therefore providing longer lasting hair color results. Types of these hair colors are permanent hair color and Demi-permanent hair color


Also known as Catalyst or Hydrogen Peroxide, oxidizing agent added to haircolor or lightener that assists in the development process; it is manufactured in various strengths, known as volumes or percentages


The technique of removing natural hair color or artificial hair color from the hair


Also known as bleach or decolorizers, will lift permanently by diffusing, dissolving or decolorizing the natural or artificial pigment in the cortex

On the scalp lightener

Come in an oil, cream and some powder forms and are able to be used on the scalp

Off the scalp lightener

Also known as Quick Lighteners, come in a powder form and are not able to be used on the scalp


semi-permanent or demi-permanent haircolor product used on pre-lightened hair to neutralize unwanted pigment


Used to equalize porosity and replace missing pigment in one application


A product used to make another product more intense, vibrant, stronger, or purer


A concentrate haircolor used to increase the ability of a haircolor to neutralize unwanted warmth of a color


A concentrated hair color that when added to another hair color, is used to deepen, brighten or create a more vivid look

Natural hair dye

Also known as vegetable hair dye, non-professional haircolor made from various plants; henna

Metallic dye

Also known as Gradual Dye, is a non-professional haircolor containing metals that after continuous use, build up on the hair (should not be used with any professional chemicals)

Demi permanent hair color

Deposits or adds color to existing color; however, it does not lighten the hair

Virgin hair color

first time the hair is colored

Single process hair color

A single application of hair color to either lighten the natural hair color or to deposit hair color to the hair strand

Double process hair color

A two-step technique involving lightening of the hair, followed by application of toner to achieve desired hair color


the technique of applying demi-permanent or semi-permanent haircolor to hair to add shine and/or refresh color

semi-permanent hair color

a deposit-only haircolor that penetrates into the cuticle layer of the hair shaft

Line of Demarcation

A visible line or band between two different haircolors, artificial or natural

Temporary hair color

Type of hair color that coats the hair surface covering only the cuticle

Resistant hair

Cuticle scales are flat, causing minimal liquid absorption

Special effects

techniques used to create texture, as well as various dimensions of color

Dimensional hair color

Utilizing two or more hair colors and/or techniques to create depth, movement, and shape


Coloring some of the hair strands lighter than the natural color to add a variety of lighter shades and the illusion of depth.

Low lighting

The technique of coloring some hair strands darker than their natural hair color (typically a foiling technique)

Foiling technique

Involves weaving or slicing out specific strands of hair for depositing haircolor or lightening


Is preformed by coloring alternating selected strands from a thin subsection of hair


Hair coloring technique that isolates thin subsections of hair in a straight line pattern


A substance used in, or produced by, the process of chemistry


Study of skin, it's functions, structures, conditions, diseases/disorders and treatments


The basic unit of structure and function in all living things


Process in which human tissue cells reproduce by dividing in half, creating two daughter cells


A group of similar cells that perform the same function.


Separate body structures composed of multiple tissues that each perform specific functions

skeletal system

Protects and supports body organs and provides a framework the muscles use to support movement. Made up of bones and joints

Ethmoid bone

Spongy bone between both eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavity

Muscular System

Contracts and moves various parts of the body and supports the skeletal system


Study of muscles


Place where a muscle attaches to a non-moving section of bone


The middle part of the muscle


Portion of the muscle joined to bone to assist movement

striaded muscle

Also known as skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles are attached the bone and knowingly controlled

Non-striated muscle

Involuntary muscle that is smooth and not marked with lines


A massage technique that involves gliding stroking or circular movements


The massage movement that involves various kneading, lifting, or grasping


Deep rubbing movement requiring pressure on the skin with the fingers or palm while moving them over an underlying structure.


Also known as TAPOTEMENT, manage technique that involves short, light tapping or slapping


Involves the use of tips of the fingers to produce a rapid shaking movement


body system that covers and protects the outside of an organisms body that is comprised of protective covering


Guarding against the skin's enemies, such as UV rays, extreme weather conditions, bacterial infections and injury

Heat regulation

Maintaining a body temperature of 98.6 Fahrenheit through the blood and excretion of perspiration


Allows products to penetrate the skin to keep it supple and pliable


When sebum, an oily substance, is delivered from the sebaceous glands to provide moisture and maintain skin's elasticity


Accomplished when sweat glands disperse perspiration, this maintains a healthy temperature by cooling the body


Nerve endings that are stimulated through touch, heat, cold, pressure, and pain receptors


Also known as basil layer, is the outer most layer of the skin containing many small nerve endings but no blood vessels

stratum corneum

the most superficial layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells known as horny layer

Stratum locidum

Clear layer of epidermis just below the stratum corneum

stratum spinosum

Layer where the cells develop tiny spines that assist in binding all cells tightly together

stratum germinativum

the deepest live layer of the epidermis that produces new epidermal skin cells and is responsible for growth


Inner layer of skin

papillary layer

outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis

reticular layer

Deeper layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients

subcutaneous tissue

Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.

Duct gland

Secretes waste from the body and deposits it on the skin's surface; located within the dermis


Also known as sweat glands

sebaceous glands

Sac-like duct gland attached to the hair follicles that produce sebum

sebum (oil)

An oily substance that protects the surface of the skin and lubricates both the skin and hair


Rare, congenital skin disorder characterized by a total or partial lack of melanin in the body


white skin (white patches caused by depigmentation)


inherited skin disorder producing smooth, irregularly-shaped white patches, caused by the loss of pigment producing cells


Also known liver spots or moth patches are non elevated, hyper-pigmented, light to dark brown spots and scattered on hands, arms or face


Birthmark on the skin, characterized by small or large irregularly-shaped marks or stains


also known as a callus or tyloma, is a thickened or hardened area of skin caused by friction, continual rubbing, or pressure over the same part of skin




Small flat or raised pigmented spot on the surface of the skin, ranging in color from light to dark brown


Small, white, keratin-filled bumps or cysts that are enclosed within the epidermis with no visible opening; commonly found around the eyes, cheeks and/or forehead


Skin lesion containing masses of sebum trapped in the hair follicle; two types of comedones are open comedones (blackheads) and closed comedones (whiteheads)


Chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands


Chronic skin disorder of the face with red inflamed areas appearing mostly on the nose and cheeks


Foul smelling perspiration


excessive sweating


lack of sweating

Miliaria rubra

Also known as prickly heat; an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands, characterized by the eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin.


inflammation of the skin

Dermititis Venenata

Also known as contact dermatitis is an allergic reaction caused by skins sensitivity to the exposure or use of a certain product


Painful, itchy and non-contagious skin inflammation, which can have the appearance of either dry or moist lesions


bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture


inflammation of the conjunctiva (pink eye)


Wound or mark on the skin


Inflamed, elevated pimple that contains pus


Areas of discoloration that appear on the skin surface; for example, freckles


small, membrane-bound sac filled with a clear liquid


large blister


small, round, raised area on the skin that may be accompanied by itching; usually seen in allergic reactions or hives


Occurs through the scraping or scratching of the epidermal layer or skin's surface; this can occur with an existing sore being scratched, irritating the existing injury

Basil Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

Most common and mildest form of skin cancer

squamous cell carcinoma

more serious that basal cell carcinoma, characterized by scaly red papules or nodules

malignant melanoma

Most serious form of skin cancer; often characterized by black or dark brown patches on the skin that may appear uneven in texture, jagged, or raised.


The lowest level of decontamination that is a physical or chemical process of reducing the surface pathogens and dirt; it will aid in preventing the growth of germs but will not kill bacteria


Agent that prevents or reduces infection by eliminating or decreasing the growth of microorganisms; it can be applied safely to the skin to cleanse a superficial wound or assist in the removal of bacteria


A chemical process that uses specific products to destroy harmful organisms on environmental surfaces.


Capable of destroying bacteria


Capable of destroying viruses


Capable of destroying fungi


Product that is able to kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis


Able to kill the pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria


The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores.

herpes simplex

Commonly known as a fever blister or a cold sore, is a contagious skin disorder associated with a viral infection

Human Inmunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Blood borne pathogen that weakens the immune system by destroying the white blood cells; HIV is the virus that can lead to aids

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

The final stagethe final stage of HIV virus


Infection that is resistant to certain antibiotics; commonly found on the skin and starts as small, red bumps


A blood borne virus that causes disease and can damage the liver.

Alternating Current (AC)

Rapid or interrupted electrical current that switches direction, moving in one direction then changing to the opposite direction

direct current

Electric current that flows in only one direction


Any material that conducts electricity


Unit for measuring the force or pressure of an electric current


Unit for measuring the resistance of an electric current


Designed to prevent an excessive amount of electrical current from passing through the circuit


excessive hair growth

Tesla high-frequency current

Also known as violet ray; thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments.

Galvanic current

Constant and direct current set to a safe, low voltage level; chemical changes are produced when the current is passed through certain solutions containing acids and salts


Property of having two opposites; a positive and negative pole of an electric current

Circulatory system

Comprised of the blood, blood vessels, and heart; responsible for moving blood and lymph throughout the body


Nourishing fluid that supplies nutrients and oxygen, carries away waste products, and protects the body from pathogenic bacteria


Colorless particle located in the blood that is responsible for clotting


a thick-walled blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart


thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart


The thin walled chambers of the top half of the heart and are referred to as the right and or left atrium


Thick walled chamber on the bottom half of the heart and are referred to as the right and or left ventricle


Permits the blood to flow in one direction only, either into or out of the ventricles and/or atrium


Clear, slightly yellow fluid that is located within the vessels and is filtered by the lymph nodes

common carotid arteries

Main arteries that supply blood to the head, face, and neck.


study of the nervous system

Nervous system

Composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Regulates body activities by sending and receiving messages.

Motor nerve

Nerve that carries messages to the brain and/or spinal cord to produce movement

Sensory nerve

Nerve that carries messages to the brain and/or spinal cord to recognize touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain and pressure

Digestive system

Comprised of the stomach, intestines, mouth, and several glands that digest food and break it down into nutrients

endocrine system

Comprised of specialized, ductless glands that regulate hormone production

Excretory system

Comprised of the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine and lungs that eliminate waste from the body

Lymphatic/Immune System

Main function is to protect the body from disease by developing immunities

reporudctive system

Comprised of the organs necessary to reproduce

Respiratory system

Comprised of the oranges that help to process air

Systemic disease

Often due to over-functioning or under-functioning internal glands or organs


The invasion of body tissues by disease-causing pathogens.


A submicroscopic, parasitic particle that causes disease


the body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease


The presence of unclean materials or tools left on a surface


The removal of any infectious materials on tools or surfaces by following all sanitation and disinfection guidelines

Decontamination method 1

Clean tolls with warm soapy water, be sure to remove visible debris, next emerge tools in EPA registered disinfectant. Always follow manufacture directions for proper contact time in mixing ratio; contact time is the amount of time the disinfectant must stay moist on a surface in order for it to be effective

Decontamination method 2

Clean tools of warm soapy water be sure to remove visible debris, next place tools in a high-pressure steam unit called an auto clave. Sterilization will destroy all microbial life including spores


An immune response or reaction to substances that are usually not harmful

Exposure incident

When you come in contact with broken skin, body fluid, blood or any other potentially infectious items while at work

Standard Precautions

A set of guidelines published by centers for disease control (CDC) that require an employer and employee to assume That all human blood and body fluids are blood-borne pathogens


The applied science concerned with designing and arrangeing things that people use so both interact most efficiently and safely


Means that infections or diseases can be transferred from one person to another by contact


Bacterial invasion of the body that disrupts a normal function of health


Any abnormality of bodily function; services can be performed a special product recommendations


one-celled microscopic organisms


Bacteria that are not harmful


Bacteria that are harmful and cause disease

Bloodborne pathogens

infectious pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood or bodily fluids and can cause disease in humans; these pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

peiculosis capitis

Condition caused by the infestation of the hair and scalp caused by the parasitic insect head louse (LICE)


contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite


Circular shaped bacteria that produce pus and can cause strep throat and blood poisoning


Bacterial cells which form in clusters, like grapes, are pus forming causing abscesses, pustules and boils


Boil or abscess of the skin located in the hair follicle


A localized infection caused by staphylococci bacteria; similar to a furuncle but larger


Grows in pairs, are spherical-shaped, and causes Pneumonia


Bacterial cells are growing curve line shape of the chains and causes abscesses, pustules, and boils.


Rod shaped, spore producing bacteria


A spiral shaped or curved bactera


Scientific study of hair and its diseases and care.


the tough outer covering of a hair composed of overlapping scales

hair follicle

The tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root.

Hair bulb

The rounded club shaped part of hair located at the end of the hair root

dermal papillae

A small, cone-shaped elevation at the base of the hair follicle filled with blood vessels.

arrector pili muscle

Causes hair to stand on end and goose bumps to appear


The process of converting living cells into hard proteins


a strong, structural protein found in skin, hair, nails.


The period of active growth


The period of break down and change of hair growth


resting phase of hair growth

Lanugo hair

also known as Vellus Hair, is the soft, white and downy hair found on the body; usually lacking a medulla

Terminal hair

Pigmented hair on the body



Pityriasis steatoides

Severe case of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scales mixed with sebum, that stick to the scalp in crusts.


Technical term for split ends

fragilitas crinium

technical term for brittle hair

Trichorrhexis nodosa

Technical term for knotted hair; it is characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swellings along the hair shaft.


Technical term for beaded hair


A surface active agent or wetting agent that has the ability to dissolve in water and remove dirt from surfaces, such as hair; the ingredient in shampoo that causes lather

Growth pattern

Direction in which the hair grows from the scalp; also referred to as natural fall or natural falling position.


Circular growth pattern; use special considerations when cutting


Tuft of hair that stands straight up

Hair stream

Hair growing in the same direction; creates a natural part

Natural distribution

The direction in which the hair moves or falls on the head


The diameter of an individual hair strand

Coarse texture

Hair has a large diameter and feels thick

Medium texture

Hair has an average width and thickness

Fine texture

Hair as a small diameter and feels thin


The thickness of a hair strand


The number of hair strands per square inch on the scalp


Abnormal hair loss

alopecia areata

Patchy loss of hair occurring on the scalp or other parts of the body

Alopeica totalis

total loss of scalp hair

Traction alopecia

Hair loss through repetitive and excessive pulling or stretching of the hair

androgenic alopecia

Male or female pattern baldness

Telogen effluvium

Premature or sudden hair loss

postpartum alopecia

baldness experienced by women after a pregnancy


members of a large group of organisms that include microorganisms, such as yeasts, molds, and mildews



tinea barbae

Also known as barber's itch; a superficial fungal infection that commonly affects the skin. It is primarily limited to the bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scalp.

tinea captitis

A fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papules, or spots, at the opening of the hair follicles.

Tinea favosa

honeycomb ringworm; dry, sulfur-yellow, cup-like crusts on the scalp; has distinctive odor


Covers the top and sides of the head and consists of six bones

parietal bone

two bones, one on each side of the head, that form the entire crown and top sides

occipital bone (skull)

The bone that covers the back of the head and sits directly above the nape

Temporal bone

bone that forms parts of the side of the skull and floor of the cranial activity. There is a right and left temporal bone.

Frontal bone

bone that forms the forehead


The broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consists of the occipitalis and frontalis.


The muscle located in the nape of the neck that draws the scalp back

epocranial aponeurosis

A tendon that connects the occipitals and frontalis


The muscle that encompasses the forehead and extends into the beginning curve of the scalp


the temple muscle located above and in front of the ear that helps in opening and closing the mouth, as in chewing


The muscle that extends from the tip of the chin from the shoulder and lowers the jaw and lip


Long muscle that stretches from the back of the ear, along the side of the neck to the collar bone


Flat triangle muscles that run from the upper back to the back of the neck

Palm to palm

a haircutting technique that positions the palms of your hands facing each other; using the palm-to-palm position when cutting prevents the hair from being lifted up off your hand and the hair from being pushed out the front of the shears


Dividing areas of hair that can be managed and controlled


the highest point of the head


Inner or internal part

parietal ridge

largest curve of the head; it separates the interior of the head from the exterior of the head


The outer or external part


The section of the head from the occipital bone to the hairline

Lines of hair cutting

Also known as the edge or division of a shape. The basic lines used in hair cutting are straight and curved. There are three types of straight lines : horizontal, vertical, and diagonal. Each line represents various movement and design options.

Vertical lines

Lines that are straight up and down; create length and height in hair design.

Horizontal line

Lines that are parallel to to the horizon line or floor

Diagonal lines

A slanting line between horizontal and vertical lines

Weight lines

Concentration of hair within an area that gives the appearance of heaviness and density

parallel lines

lines in the same plane that never intersect and have the same slope

Disconnected lines

Not connected; independent lines that normally do not blend; having a defined break in the design


the space (usually measured in degrees) between two intersecting lines or surfaces at or close to the point where they meet.


The first section of hair that is cut to serve as a guide to determine the length and/or shape

Stationary guideline

A fixed guideline that does not move

traveling guideline

guideline that moves as the haircutting progresses, used often when creating layers or graduation

Interior guidelines

a guide that is inside the haircut, not around the hairline or perimeter; this will create less weight and more softness to the perimeter

Shifted distribution

Over-directed, directing the hair out of its natural fall


is the degree or angle by which the hair is lifted and combed in relation to the head

0" blunt hair cut

No elevation cut also known as one length, bob, or solid form hair cut


Application of pressure applied while combing and holding the hair prior to cutting

45" graduated hair cut

Medium elevation cuts also known as wedge or graduated

Cross checking

parting the haircut in the opposite way from which you cut it in order to check for precision of line and shape

180" long layered haircut

A hair cut with increased long layers

90" uniform haircut

A uniform elevation cut at 90" that provides movement

Combination haircut

A haircut using two or more degrees


Techniques that help to blend lines or remove excess bulk without changing the shape of the cut

Point cutting

the texturizing technique using the tips of the shears to cut into the ends of the hair to create multiple lengths that will blend within the hair ends

Notch cutting

a texturizing technique similar to point cutting but the cutting is done toward the ends rather than into them, creating a chunking effect


A texturizing technique that removes larger sections of hair; chunking creates movement in a perimeter design line by breaking up the weighted line


also known as Slicing, is a texturizing technique using a sliding movement down the hairshaft; used to remove bulk and add mobility within the haircut or for blending and framing areas around the face


Haircutting technique done by placing the still blade into the hair and resting it on the scalp, and then moving the shears through the hair while opening and partially closing the shears.


Haircutting technique that creates curved lines by cutting ends with a slight increase or decrease in length


also known as Fading, is a cutting technique that blends hair from a shorter length at the perimeter to a longer length as moved up the head


also known as Outlining or Etching, is the technique of cutting around the hairline to create a clean line or a design within a haircut

Cosmetology laws are also called

Act 86/ may 3rd 1933/ P.L 242

Booth rental in PA is...

Is prohibited

How old you must be to take state board test

16 and have a 10th grade education

How long a school must keep records on file

7 years

this license is considered a limited license

Nail tech

The hours required to take a teachers exam


Educational requirements are waved for...

35 years old or older and or a veteran

The requirements for an apprenticeship

2,000 hours, 25 hours per week, 2 years

Where your license should be displayed

In a conspicuous place

How often your license renewed

Every 2 years

A salon hires 2 new stylist, how many towels do they need?


A school must hire at least how many full time teachers?


Adding an additional stylist in a salon requires how many square feet


School must send in a _____ report of hours to the state board


A student must complete how many hours before working on the salon floor


To open a school you need how many square feet


A salon and a barber shop are side by side, can they combine and work together in the same space


What month do license's expire


How many students are there to an educator in a class


to take the teacher exam you must have a ____ grade education


To take the teachers exams you must attend school for at least...

4 months

How many hours do you need to take the manicurist exams


Hours needed for hair braided license


Hours needed for esthetician license


If you allow your license to expire a fee of ___ dollars will be charged each month


How long can you place your license in escrow

5 years

How many hours must a student attend to take the state board exam


In a salon with one stylist you must have at least ____ square feet


Each salon station must have ___ combs and ___ brushes

12, 12

If you can play school without testing you can apply for a temporary license that is valid for ____ months


Can you apply for a temporary license after it expires


If a school wishes to be accredited they must be open for ___ years


How often should Barbicide be changed


A level that is NOT considered decontamination


When using containers holding creams or semi solid substances always use a....



Cosmetic service for care of the hands, which includes skin and nail care, cosmetic treatments and procedures, polishing techniques and artificial nail applications


Technical term for nails

Nail plate

translucent portion of the nail, extending from the nail root to the free edge; sometimes referred to as the nail body.

free edge

part of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe


Skin between the free edge and fingertip of the natural nail

nail bed

Portion of the skin that the nail plate rests upon as it grows out

Bed epithelium

Thin layer of skin cells between the nail bed and the nail plate

Cuticle (nail)

The small portion of non-living epidermis extending around the base of the nail


whitish, half-moon shape at the base of the nail


Part of the nail bed that extends below the nail root and helps to produce the nail plate

Nail folds

Folds of normal skin that surround the natural nail plate

Nail sidewall

Also known as the lateral nail fold, is the piece of skin that overlaps onto the side of the nail

Nail grooves

Slits or grooves on the sides of the nail that allow growth


Living skin at the base of the nail plate that partially overlaps the lunula


Additional or excessive skin that overlaps onto the sides of the nail plate



Bruised nail

Dark purplish discoloration under the nail caused by trauma

Eggshell nails

Noticeably thin, white nail plates that are more flexible than normal and can curve over the free edge.


Also known as white spots, whitish discoloration of the nails caused by injury


Darkening of the nails caused by excess melanin; may be in a band or stripe

Nail psoriasis

A noninfectious condition that affects the surface of the natural nail plate causing tiny pits or severe roughness on the surface of the nail plate.

Nail pterygium

Forward growth of living skin that adheres to the surface of the nail plate


ingrown nail


Bitten nails


Split or brittle nails


Also known as furrow or corrugation, is a vertical or horizontal indentation running the length or width of the nail plate


General term for any nail disease or deformity


fungal infection of the nail

tinea pedis

athlete's foot


Inflammation of the nail matrix


Loosening or separation of the nail


Bacterial inflammation of the tissues surrounding the nail causing pus, swelling, and redness, usually in the skin fold adjacent to the nail plate.


Spongy, respiratory organs responsible for inhaling and exhaling

Quaternary ammonium compounds

Also known as Quats, is a standard name for disinfectants


Extremely flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly

Sodium hypochlorite

Common household bleach; an effective disinfectant for the salon.


Strong, high pH disinfectant

Accelerated hydrogen peroxide

Disinfectant based on a stabilized hydrogen peroxide that is non-toxic to the skin and environment; this type of disinfectant only needs to be changed every 14 days


Largest bone in the upper arm, extending from the shoulder to the elbow


Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.


Outer and smaller bone on the inside of the forearm; located on the thumb side


Eight bones that form the wrist


Five long, thin bones that form the palm of the hand

Phalanges (Digits)

fingers, toes

Pronator muscles


Supinator muscle

Turns the forearm and hand outward so the palm faces upward

flexor muscle

Bends a joint

Extensor muscles

Aid in the straightening of a joint

Abductor muscles

Spread the fingers or toes

adductor muscles

Pulls the fingers or toes together


Group of adductor muscles located in the palm that pulls the thumb toward the fingers


Causing small unseen openings in the skin that allow for the entry of pathogens

Metal pushers

Used to gently scrape the cuticle from the natural nail; they are made of stainless steel and can be disinfected and reused


Based on the use of reflex points located throughout the hands, feet, and head that are linked to other parts of the body


thigh bone




Also known as shin


The lateral and smaller bone of the lower leg


7 bones that form the ankle


5 long slender bones of the foot.


Muscle located in the calf that pulls the foot down; attached to the lower portion of the heel

tibilais anterior

Muscle that covers the shin and bends the foot


Muscle that is attached to the lower heel and bends the foot down

Perneous Longus

Longer of the two muscles, responsible for turning the foot down and out

Peroneus Brevis

Shorter of the two muscles responsible for rotating the foot down and out

tibilais posterior

Muscle the helps flex the foot inward

Flexor Digiti Minimi

Muscle that moves/controls the little toe.


a foot treatment that could include soaking the feet and polishing the toenails

Nail rasp

To smooth and file the free edge

Wooden pusher

Used to gently remove cuticle tissue away from the nail plate and clean under the free edge; made from orangewood, rosewood or other hardwoods; disposable alternatives for pushing back cuticles

Digital nerve

Nerves located in the fingers and toes

Median nerve

Smallest of the three arm and hand nerves; runs along the mid forearm and extends into the hands

Radial nerve

Nerve that runs along the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand

ulnar nerve

Nerve that runs along the little finger side of the arm and the palm of the hand

Radial artery

Supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand

ulnar artery

Supplies blood to the little finger side of the arm and the palm of the hand

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA)

Type of monomer that is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid compound. MMA polymerizes readily and is used especially as a monomer for acrylic resin. It has a small molecule size and can penetrate body tissue or skin and possibly cause an allergic reaction


A concentrate or powder made up of acrylic powder that when mixed with a monomer forms a nail enhancement


Found in polymer powder; when activated by a catalyst, will spring into action and cause monomer molecules to permanently link together into long polymer chains.

Inhibition layer

The tacky, film like layer that forms on the top of the nail enhancement


a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound

Fiber wraps

Very thin and tightly woven material such as linen, silk, or fiberlgass


A specialized acrylic monomer that has excellent adhesion to the natural nail plate and polymerizes in seconds

Nail wrap resin

Used to adhere the fabric wrap to the natural nail or nail tip

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

A high-quality virgin plastic, used to manufacture nail tips

Position stop

The point where the free edge of the natural nail meets the tip.

Stress area

Where the natural nail grows beyond the finger and becomes the free edge


Liquid solution, containing methacrylic acid that is applied sparingly to the natural nail plate prior to acrylic product application to assist in adhesion of the enhancement


A layer of any kind of nail enhancement product that is applied over the natural nail or nail and tip application for added strength.


short polymer chains that consist of just a few monomers, creating a thickened resin or a 'gel-like' substance

Urethane acrylate

Main ingredient used to create UV gel nail enhancements

Photo initiators

The chemical that begins the polymerization process in gel nails

Urethane methacrylate

Main ingredient used to create UV gel nail enhancements