Chapter 1 Test Notes


These emerged near farming centers.Villages grew into these.Served as centers of religion, government, and culture.

Organized Government

Managed society's resources so that people get the things they need to survive.Forms and trains army to protect and expand borders.

Established Religion

Set of shared beliefs about supernatural powers that created and rule the world.Polytheistic- belief in more than one god.Monotheistic- belief in one god.

Job Specialization

Priests, rulers, soldiers, craftworkersAllowed many people to develop skills and talents needed to create and maintain a civilization.

Social Classes

groups of people that occupy different ranks or levels in society. Highest made up of priests and rulers. Middle included farmers, merchants, and skilled workers.Lowest included slaves

Public Works

large scale projects such as roads, water systems, city walls, and granaries. Benefited all of society.

Arts and Architecture

beautifully decorated temples, tombs, and palaces, paintings, music, sculptures, and literature

System of Writing

Picture writing, symbols representing sounds and letters