Unit 1 Summative

Qualitative Research

Empirical research where the data are not in the form of numbers (descriptive methods)

Quantitive Research

Deals with numerical data or data that can be transformed into numbers (correlational studies).

Descriptive Research

Want understanding, in detail, the experience of their research participants (3 types)

Case Study

In depth study of a single person, group, or rare phenomenon.


Predict the possibility of cause and effect relationships; it does not imply or prove causation

Random Assignment

Ensures all members have an equal chance of being places in either control or experimental group


the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

Behavioral Psychologist



biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

Longitudinal Study

a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time

Confounding Variable

a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study's results

Behavioral Psychologists

Assume that since all behavior is learned through the conditioning that occurs during interactions with an individual's environment, it can be analytically studied and observed.

operational definition

A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualitiesex. the operational definition of anxiety could be in terms of a test score, withdrawal from a situation, or activation of the sympathetic nervous system.


the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed toex. if you are a good driver and pass a driving test, then the drivers test is a valid measure of your ability to drive


Ability of a test to get very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings

Sampling Bias

A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.

Standard Deviation

The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples are clustered around the mean in a set of data.

Humanistic Approach

focused on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment

statistical significance

The claim that a result from data generated by testing or experimentation is likely to be attributable to a specific cause.

cross-sectional studies

A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. the "if

dependent variable

The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. the "then

Psychoanalytic approach

Focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts,

double-blind control

A double-blind study is one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment; prevent bias

correlation coefficient

a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

cognitive psychologists

psychologists who study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information

sociocultural perspective

How thinking and behavior varies across different cultures and situations

Frequency Distribution

an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs


a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

Control group

In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

Experimental research

Manipulating one variable to determine if this causes changes in another variable

Wilhelm Wundt

father of psychology

Negative correlation

as one variable increases, the other decreases

Correlational research

Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together.

Positive correlation

A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.

Placebo effect

Causes experimental results simply from exceptions or assumptions that medication is being taken.

Experiment bias

the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis

Random sampling

each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

Cognitive theorists

Piaget and Vygotsky, observed infants in a context, and used movement to understand what children were thinking.

Ethical guidelines

Advice to help psychologists solve ethical issues.


a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

Importance of Stanley Milgram's obedience study

they provide a frame of reference for contemporary real-life instances of extreme, destructive obedience. provided important insight into human social behaviour, particularly conformity and social pressure


the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge


focuses on the purpose of consciousness and behavior

Charles Darwin

natural selection

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment

Mary Whiton Calkins

American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association, student of William James

Margaret Floy Washburn

first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

humanistic psychology (humans strive to reach their full potential)

B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson

Behaviorism, focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment

Clinical psychologists

evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

Industry Organized Psychologists

They study the relationship between people and our work enviroments.

Social Psychologists

They study how we interact with others and how groups impact us individually.

Community Psychologists

They work with larger groups and communities and focusing on crisis management...such as recovering from a hurricane.They work as university professors or in federal, state, or local mental health departments or as consultants for private or government agencies.


early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

American Psychological Association

promote the advancement, communication, and application of psychological science and knowledge to benefit society and improve lives