Empirical research where the data are not in the form of numbers (descriptive methods)
Deals with numerical data or data that can be transformed into numbers (correlational studies).
Want understanding, in detail, the experience of their research participants (3 types)
In depth study of a single person, group, or rare phenomenon.
Predict the possibility of cause and effect relationships; it does not imply or prove causation
Ensures all members have an equal chance of being places in either control or experimental group
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time
a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study's results
Assume that since all behavior is learned through the conditioning that occurs during interactions with an individual's environment, it can be analytically studied and observed.
A statement of the procedures or ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualitiesex. the operational definition of anxiety could be in terms of a test score, withdrawal from a situation, or activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed toex. if you are a good driver and pass a driving test, then the drivers test is a valid measure of your ability to drive
Ability of a test to get very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.
The standard deviation is a statistic that tells you how tightly all the various examples are clustered around the mean in a set of data.
focused on our inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment
The claim that a result from data generated by testing or experimentation is likely to be attributable to a specific cause.
A type of research design that compares individuals of different ages to determine how they differ
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. the "if
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. the "then
Focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts,
A double-blind study is one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment; prevent bias
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
psychologists who study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information
How thinking and behavior varies across different cultures and situations
an arrangement of data that indicates how often a particular score or observation occurs
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables
In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Manipulating one variable to determine if this causes changes in another variable
father of psychology
as one variable increases, the other decreases
Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together.
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
Causes experimental results simply from exceptions or assumptions that medication is being taken.
the unconscious tendency for researchers to treat members of the experimental and control groups differently to increase the chance of confirming their hypothesis
each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected
Piaget and Vygotsky, observed infants in a context, and used movement to understand what children were thinking.
Advice to help psychologists solve ethical issues.
a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
Importance of Stanley Milgram's obedience study
they provide a frame of reference for contemporary real-life instances of extreme, destructive obedience. provided important insight into human social behaviour, particularly conformity and social pressure
the idea that knowledge comes from experience, and that observation and experimentation enable scientific knowledge
focuses on the purpose of consciousness and behavior
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
Mary Whiton Calkins
American psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality, and dreams; first woman president of the American Psychological Association, student of William James
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
humanistic psychology (humans strive to reach their full potential)
B.F. Skinner and John B. Watson
Behaviorism, focuses on the idea that all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment
evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders
Industry Organized Psychologists
They study the relationship between people and our work enviroments.
They study how we interact with others and how groups impact us individually.
They work with larger groups and communities and focusing on crisis management...such as recovering from a hurricane.They work as university professors or in federal, state, or local mental health departments or as consultants for private or government agencies.
early school of thought promoted by Wundt and Titchener; used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind
American Psychological Association
promote the advancement, communication, and application of psychological science and knowledge to benefit society and improve lives