Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of Poultry

What are contour feathers used for?

Flight and streamlining

What are plumule feathers?

Down feathers

What is the technical term for the oil or preen gland?


Where is the uropygial gland located?

At the base of the tail

What respiratory structure is located on the roof of the bird mouth?

Choanal slit

What is different about the trachea of birds?

The have complete tracheal rings

What bacterial disease can cause tracheal collapse in birds?


What structure is similar to the vocal cords in birds?

The syrinx

Where is the syrinx located?

At the bifurcation of the trachea

What anatomical difference allows for the recirculating of air?

Interconnected bronchi

Where does air exchange occur in the air sacs of birds?

Air capillaries

How many air sacs do birds have?


How do air sacs affect anesthetic length?

Anesthetic gasses may be retained in the airsacs longer

The crop is a dilation of what structure?

The esophagus

What structure is also known as the gizzard?

The ventriculus

What is the purpose of the ventriculus?

Grinding feed

The cloaca is the termination of what three systems?

GI, Urinary, and reproductive

What is different about the urinary system of birds?

They lack a urinary bladder

What is different about the kidneys of birds?

They are elongated and have three lobules

What do birds excrete instead of urine?

Uric acid

What is different about the hearts of birds?

They are relatively larger

What are the two primary lymphoid organs of birds?

Bursa of Fabricious and thymus

What are the two secondary lymphoid organs of birds?

Bone and spleen

What is a major difference about the lymphatic system of birds?

They lack lymph nodes

What about the musculoskeletal system of birds makes it more likely that an infection will spread rapidly?

The bones are hollow and communicate with the airsacs

What gametes does a female bird have?


What gametes does a male bird have?


Which side of the female repro tracts usually develops?

The left side

What endocrine gland regulates diurnal rhythms and body temp?

The pineal gland

What is different about the anatomical conformation of the bird skeleton?

They often have fused bones

What cranial nerve lobe is really large in the bird?


What cranial nerve lobe is small in the bird?


What is the unique boney structure in the eyes of birds?

Sclerotic ossicles