classical conditioning

learning to make an involuntary (reflex) response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex

unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response

unconditioned response (UCR)

an involuntary (reflex) response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus

neutral stimulus (NS)

stimulus that has no effect on the desired response

conditioned stimulus (CS)

stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus

conditioned response (CR)

learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus

stimulus generalization

the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response

stimulus discrimination

the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus


the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning)

spontaneous recovery

the reapperarance of a learned response after extinction has occurred

higher-order conditioning

occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus

conditioned emotional response (CER)

emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person

vicarious conditioning

classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction of another person

conditioned taste aversion

development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association

biological preparedness

referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or a few pairings due to the survival value of the learning

stimulus substitution

original theory in which Pavlov stated that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together

cognitive perspective

modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus

operant conditioning

the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses

law of effect

law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated


any behavior that is voluntary


any event or stimulus that, when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again


any events or objects that, when following a response, increase the likelihood of that response occurring again

primary reinforcer

any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch

secondary reinforcer

any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars

positive reinforcement

the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experience of a pleasurable stimulus

negative reinforcement

the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus

partial reinforcement effect

the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction

continuous reinforcement

the reinforcement of each and every correct response

fixed interval schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same

variable interval schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event

fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same

variable ratio schedule of reinforcement

schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event


any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again

punishment by application

the punishment of a response by the addition or experience of an unpleasant stimulus

punishment by removal

the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus

discriminative stimulus

any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement


the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior

successive approximations

small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior

instinctive drift

tendency for an animal's behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns

behavior modification

the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior

token economy

type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens

applied behavior analysis (ABA)

modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response


use of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses, such as blood pressure and relaxation, under voluntary control


form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior

latent learning

learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful


the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly

learned helplessness

the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past

observational learning

learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior

learning/performance distinction

referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior


Active system that receives information from the senses, puts it in a usable form, organizes and stores it, retrieves info from storage


Set of mental operations people perform on sensory info to convert that info into a form that is usable in the brain's storage


Holding on to memory/information for some period of time


Getting the information out of storage

Information-processing model

Focuses on the way information is handled/processed through different systems of memory; encoding, storage, retrieval are part of this process (similar to computer)

Parallel distributed processing model

Memory processes proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections

Levels-of-processing model

Model of memory that assumes information that is more deeply processed, or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or characteristics; will be remembered longer

Sensory memory

First stage of memory; information enters nervous system through sensory systems

Iconic memory

Visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second

Eidetic imagery

Ability to access a visual memory over a long period of time

Echoic memory

Brief memory of something a person has heard

Short-term memory

Held for 30 seconds or more; brief (3-5 items)

Selective attention

Ability to focus on only one stimulus from all sensory input (STM system)

Working memory

Active system that processes information in short-term memory

Maintenance rehearsal

Continuing to play attention to information to be memorized

Long-term memory

Where information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

Elaborative rehearsal

Way of transferring information from STM to LTM by making that information meaningful

Non declarative (Implicit) memory

Memories for skills people know how to do (tying shoes, riding bike, etc.)

Declarative (explicit) memory

All the things people can know; facts and information

Anterograde amnesia

When new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed

Semantic memory

Awareness of meanings of words, concepts, terms, names, math skills, etc.

Episodic memory

Represent episodes from one's life

Semantic network model

Assumes information stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that relate is closer physically than concepts not highly related

Retrieval cue

Stimulus for remembering

Encoding specificity

Tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to conditions where information was encoded


Memories retrieved with few or no external clues


Involves seeing or hearing information and matching it with memory

Serial position effect

Tendency of information at the bottom and top of list or information to be remembered more accurately than the middle

Primacy effect

When beginning words are remembered better than the middle

Recency effect

When ending words are remembered better than the middle

Automatic encoding

Long-term memories enter permanent storage with little to no effort

Flashbulb memories

Automatic encoding that takes place when unexpected events or episodes have strong emotional associations; the emotional reactions stimulate a released of hormones which enhances formation of LTM

Constructive processing

Memories "built" from pieces stored away at encoding

Hindsight bias

When people falsely believe they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it

Misinformation effect

Misleading information can become part of the memory affecting its accuracy

Encoding failure

Failure to process information into a memory


Fading into nothing from disuse; "use it or lose it

Proactive interference

Tendency for old material to get in the way of learning new information


Tendency for new material to get in the way of retrieving old information

Retrograde amnesia

Loss of memory from point of injury backwards


the changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed.

retroactive interference

memory problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information.

distributed practice

distributed practicespacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods.

memory trace

physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed.


another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.

curve of forgetting

a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.


- process that occus when special receptors activate and allow the outside stimuli to become neural signals


the process of converting outside stimuli (light) into neural activity

jnd (diff threshold)

the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50% of the time (coffee and teaspoons)

absolute threshld

lowest level of stimulation that the person can consciously detect 50% of the time (candle 30 mph away on a clear, dark night)


brain's tendency to stop attending to stop attending to constant, unchanging information (ex. ac in the back, you don't notice until it stops making the noise)

sensory adaptation

tendency of the receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging (piercings)

visual accomodation

the change in the thickness of the lens as it focuses on objects that are far away or close


surface of the eye in clear membrane the protects the eye and adjusts the amount of light that enters the eye

aqueous humor

clear liquid behind the cornea that nourishes the eye


black part of eye


colored part of the eye that changes pupil's shape to let in more or less with some focus

viterous humor

big red hole in the eye filled with liquid that nourishes and shapes the eye

Final stop in the retina

retina has ganglion, bipolar, rods and cones


- in the back of the retina- responsible for sensitivity to black and white colors


- retina receptor- responsible for colored vision and sharpness of vision


area in retina where axons of retinal cells exit the eyes to form the optic nerve which is insensitive to light

dark adaptation

recovery of eye sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after being exposed to the bright light

light adaptation

recovery of eye sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness

trichromatic theory

theory that 3 types of cones of blue, green, and red that when mixed and fired at a certain speed determine the vision that is shown on the retina


images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed

opponent-process theory

- paired colors of red-green and blue-yellow that are stimulated by 1 color and inhibited by the light of another color- it also accounts for afterimages


- measure of frequency- for hearing


-visible ear -entrance into the ear

auditory canal

short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum


snail shaped structure in the inner ear filled with fluid whose vibrations cause organ of corti's hairs to vibrate thus producing a neural message

auditory nerve

hearing neural messages sending place in which axons reside


sounds that correspond to the frequency

place theory

- theory of pitch that states that different pitches are caused by the stimulation of hair cells in different locations on the organ of corti- for more than 4000 hz; high pitch means that hair cells near the oval window were stimulated

frequency theory

- pitch theory that states that pitch is determined by how strong the vibrations of the basilar membrane- good for low pitches

volley principle

theory of pitch that states that frequencies from 400-4000 causes hair cells (auditory nerve) to take turns in firing


another name for the sense of taste

taste buds

taste receptor cells


ability to smell odors

olfactory bulbs

area in brain above nose and under frontal lobe that receive information from the taste buds/smelling receptor cells

somesthetic senses

body senses made of skin senses, kinesthetic senses, and vestibular senses

skin senses

sensation of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain


the awareness of body movement


awareness of where the body and body parts are located in relation to each other in space, and to the ground

kinesthetic sense

- sense of body parts located in relation to the ground and each other- inform about contracting, stretching, joints and muscles

vestibular sense

sensations of movement, balance, and body position in inner ear; spinning and stopping-->you become dizzy

gate control theory

pain-release of substance p-stimulates other neurons that open spinal chord gates-carried to brain to activate cells in thalamus and lobes-brain interprets and sends signals that open gates more allowing more pain or closes them thus relieving pain

sensory conflict theory

motion sickness theory in which the information from the eyes conflicts with the information in vestibular senses resulting in nausea, dizziness, etc

otolith organs

fluid sacs above the cochlea that tell the person in what direction they are moving


ability of the brain to take in and interpret all senses to present a message to us

size constancy

tendency to interpret an object as always being the same size, regardless of its distance

shape constancy

tendency to interpret the shape of an object being the same even when its shape changes on the retina

brightness constancy

tendency to perceive the brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change


tendency to perceive objects or figures as existing on a background ex: goblet and two faces

reversible figures

illusion in which figure and ground can be reversed ex: goblet and two faces


tendency to group things that are near each other ex: ****


tendency to group things together that look similar to each other ex: team members with the same clothes


tendency to complete incomplete figures


tendency to perceive things as continuous pattern rather than complex, broken-up pattern


tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related

depth perception

ability to see the world in three dimensions

monocular cues

perceiving depth form one eye only; pictorial depth cues

linear perspective

tendency for parallel line to seem like they are converging on each other

relative size

perception that occurs when objects that a person expects to be a certain size seem smaller because they are assumed to be farther away


aka interposition; assumption that object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of that object

binocular cues

cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes

aerial perspective

haziness that surrounds objects that are far away, causing the distance to be greater

texture gradiant

texture becomes smaller and fine as the distance increases

motion parallax

perception of being in a car and things like trees move very fast but the mountains in the back move slowly


brain's use of information about objects being far/close by the changing thickness of the lens


crossing eyes for objects nearest the eye and not so much for father objects

binocular disparity

objects closer to the eyes seem to jump around when closing one eye and then the other. objects farther away don't do that

muller lyer illusion

illusion of line length that is distorted by inward-turning or outward-turning corners on the ends of the line, causing lines of equal length to appear to be different

perceptual set

tendency to perceive things a different way because of past experiences or expectations. what you see expects on what you want to see

top-down processing

using pre-existing knowledge to organize feature into a unified whole. easier to put together a jigsaw puzzle if you see a picture before

bottom-up processing

analysis of smaller features to build up to complete perception. ex: making jigsaw puzzle from no picture

nervous system

an extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body


a branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue

biological psychology (behavioral neuroscience)

branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning


the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system


branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons


the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell


tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells

glial cells

cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and, during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons


fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse


bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body


process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to area of low concentration

resting potential

the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse

action potential

the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon


referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all

synaptic knob

rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals

axon terminals

branches at the end of the axon

synaptic vesicles

saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals


chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell

synapse (synaptic gap)

microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell

receptor sites

three-dimensional proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters

excitatory synapse

synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire

inhibitory synapse

synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing


chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters


chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell


process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles

enzymatic degradation

process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor

central nervous system (CNS)

part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

spinal cord

a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes

afferent (sensory) neuron

a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system

efferent (motor) neuron

a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body


a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the afferent neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the efferent neurons; interneurons also make up the bulk of the neurons in the brain

reflex arc

the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action


the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma

stem cells

special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself

somatic nervous system

division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands

sensory pathway

nerves coming the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons

motor pathway

nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons

sympathetic division (fight-or-flight system)

part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal

parasympathetic division

part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands

endocrine glands

glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream


chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands

pituitary gland

gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland)

pineal gland

endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum; secretes melatonin

thyroid gland

endocrine gland found in the neck; regulates metabolism


endocrine gland; controls the levels of sugar in the blood


sex glands; secrete hormones that regulate sexual development and behavior as well as reproduction


the female gonads


the male gonads

adrenal glands

endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that secrete over 30 different hormones to deal with stress, regulate salt intake, and provide a secondary source of sex hormones affecting the sexual changes that occur during adolescence

deep lesioning

insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire

computed tomography (CT)

brain-imaging method using computer-controlled X-rays of the brain

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain


machine designed to record the electroencephalogram

electroencephalogram (EEG)

a recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull, most often using scalp electrodes

positron emission tomography (PET)

brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into a person and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain

single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

neuroimaging method that is similar to PET but uses a different radioactive tracer and can be used to examine brain blood flow

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

MRI-based brain-imaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation


the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate


the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal

reticular formation (RF)

an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal


part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement

limbic system

a group of several brain structures located primarily under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation


part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area

olfactory bulbs

two projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose located just below


small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex


curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects


brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear


outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input

cerebral hemispheres

the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain

corpus callosum

thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres

occipital lobe

section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain

parietal lobes

sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations

somatosensory cortex

are of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste

temporal lobes

areas of the brain located along the side, starting just behind the temples, containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech

frontal lobes

areas of the brain located in the front and top, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech

motor cortex

rear section of the frontal lobe, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system

mirror neurons

neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another

association areas

areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing

Broca's aphasia

condition resulting from damage to Broca's area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly

Wernicke's aphasia

condition resulting from damage to Wernicke's area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language

unilateral spatial neglect

condition produced most often by damage to the parietal lobe association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field


the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them


the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

objective introspection

the process of examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities


early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind


early perspective in psychology associated with William James, in which the focus of study is how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play

Gestalt psychology

early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures


the theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud


the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only

psychodynamic perspective

modern version of psychoanalysis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations

cognitive perspective

modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning

cognitive neuroscience

study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking

sociocultural perspective

perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture

biopsychological perspective

perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system

evolutionary perspective

perspective that focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share


a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology


a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

psychiatric social worker

a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress and drug abuse

scientific method

system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced


tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations

replication in research

repetition of a study or experiment to see if the same results will be obtained in an effort to demonstrate reliability of results

observer effect

tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed

participant observation

a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed

observer bias

tendency of observers to see what they expect to see

case study

study of one individual in great detail

representative sample

randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects


the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested


a measure of the relationship between two variables

correlation coefficient

a number derived from the formula for measuring a correlation and indicating the strength and direction of a correlation


a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships

operational definition

definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured

independent variable

variable in an experiment that is manipulated by the experimenter

dependent variable

variable in an experiment that represents the measurable response or behavior of the subjects in the experiment

experimental group

subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable

control group

subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may receive a placebo treatment

random assignment

process of assigning subjects to the experimental or control group randomly, so that each subject has an equal chance of being in either group

placebo effect

the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior

experimenter effect

tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study

single-blind study

study in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group

double-blind study

study in which neither the experimenter nor the subjects know if the subjects are in the experimental or control group

critical thinking

making reasoned judgments about claims