Prokaryotic things I don't know

3 shapes of bacteria

cocci, bacilli, spirilli, (round, rod, spiral)

Streptococcus is what shape


Lactobacillus is what shape


Leptospira is what shape


types of bacteria in terms of metabolism

obligate/facilitative (an)aerobic or aerotolerant

the gooy stuff sounding the bacteria is called (sometimes)

capsule (helps keeps antibiotics and other crap away)

cell wall is made of

Peptido-glycan (Sugary+ Polypeptide)

gram positive vs gram negative cell wall(which is more antibiotic resistant)

gram negative because most antibiotics target the cell wall

size of ribosome (pro vs eu)

pro: 70Seu: 80Sremember: 3,4,5,6,7,8. odd = pro, even = eupro: 3 + 5 = 7eu: 4 + 6 = 8


Cell movement that occurs in response to chemical stimulus

pilli vs fimbriae

pilli = long hairfimbriae = short hairs

3 steps of binary fission

1. DNA Replication 2. Chromosome (and plasmid) Segregation 3. Separation(just like a divorce after family)

Bacteria growth stages

lag, log, stationary, death (remember the axis is a log!)

what are more plasmids associated with

antibiotic resistance and higher virulence

ways for antibiotic resistance to form (6)

capsule, plasmids, cell wall composition, new enzyme, ejections, new mechanisms

explain 4 parts of operon

regulation gene - codes for a repressor proteinpromotor - binds RNA poloperator - binding site for the repressor proteinstructural gene - protein in question

operons can be ______ or ______

inducible or repressible

4 ways to increase genetic diversity in bacteria

1) transduction - virus2) transposons - make random mutation in genome2) transformation - DNA floating in environment3) conjugation - F+, F- with sex pilus