Intelligence Disciplines and the Intelligence Community

Intelligence Disciplines

Well-defined areas of intelligence planning, collection, processing, exploitation, analysis and production, and dissemination using a specific category of technical or human resources.

Joint Publication (JP) 2-0, Joint Intelligence

This document defines intelligence sources as the means or systems that can be used to observe and record information relating to the condition, situation, or activities of a targeted location, organization, or individual.

Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT)

Imagery Intelligence (IMINT); Geospatial Information

Human Intelligence (HUMINT)

Debriefings; Source Operations; Interrogation Operations; Document and Media Exploitation

Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)

Communications Intelligence (COMINT); Electronic Intelligence (ELINT): Technical ELINT (TECHELINT), Operational ELINT (OPELINT); Foreign INstrumentations Signals Intelligence (FISINT)

Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT)

Electromagnetic Data; Radio Frequency Data; Radar Data; Nuclear Radiation Data; Materials Data; Geophysical Data

Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT)

Academia; Interagency; Internet; Newspapers/Periodicals; Media Broadcast


A unique intelligence discipline that integrates imagery, imagery intelligence (IMINT), and geospatial information.


A likeness or representation of any natural or manmade feature, related object or activity, and the positional data acquired at the time the likeness or representation was acquired.

Imagery Intelligence (IMINT)

The technical, geographic, and intelligence information derived through the interpretation or analysis of imagery and aollateral materials.

Geospatial Information

Identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the Earth.

Human Intelligence (HUMINT)

A category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources.


The systematic effort to procure information to answer specific collection requirements by direct and indirect questioning techniques of a person who is in the custody of the forces conducting the questioning.


The process of questioning cooperating human sources to satisfy intelligence requirements, consistent with applicable law.

Captured Documents and Media

All media capable of storing fixed information to include computer storage material.

Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)

Intelligence produced by exploiting foreign communications systems and noncommunications emitters.

Communications Intelligence (COMINT); Electronic Signals Intelligence (ELINT); Foreign Instrumentation Signals Intelligence (FISINT)

What are the three subcategories of SIGINT?

Communications Intelligence (COMINT)

Intelligence and technical information derived from collecting and processing intercepted foreign communications passed by radio, wire, or other electromagnetic means.

Electronic Intelligence (ELINT)

Intelligence derived from the interception and analysis of noncommunications emitters (e.g., radar).

Operational ELINT; Technical ELINT

What are the two subcategories of ELINT?


___ is concerned with operationally relevant information such as the location, movement, employment, tactics, and activity of foreign noncommunications emitters and their associated weapon systems.


___ is concerned with the technical aspects of foreign noncommunications emitters such as signal characteristics, modes, functions, associations, capabilities, limitations, vulnerabilities, and technology levels.


___ involves the technical analysis of data intercepted from foreign equipment and control systems such as telemetry, electronic interrogators, tracking/fusing/arming/firing command systems, and video data links.

Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT)

Scientific and technical intelligence obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data (metric, angle, spatial) derived from specific technical sensors for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the target, source, emitter, or sender.


___ are typically the products of multiple measurements collected over time and under varying circumstances.

EO Data

Emitted or reflected energy across the visible/IR portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Radar Data

Radar energy reflected (reradiated) from a target or objective.

Radio Frequency Data

Radio frequency/electromagnetic pulse emissions associated with nuclear testing, or other high energy events for the purpose of determining power levels, operating characteristics, and signatures of advance technology weapons, power and propulsion systems.

Geophysical Data

Phenomena transmitted through the Earth (ground, water, and atmosphere) and man-made structures including emitted or reflected sounds, pressure waves, vibrations, and magnetic field or ionosphere disturbances.

Materials Data

Gas, liquid, or solid samples, collected both by automatic equipment, such as air samplers, and directly by humans.

Nuclear Radiation Data

Nuclear radiation and physical phenomena associated with nuclear weapons, processes, materials, devices, or facilities.

Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT)

___ is based on publicly available information as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access.

Technical Intelligence (TECHINT)

Derived from the exploitation of foreign materiel and scientific information.

Scientific and Technical Intelligence (S&TI)

At the strategic level, the exploitation and interpretation of foreign weapon systems, materiel, and technologies is referred to as ___ ___ ___ ___.

Counterintelligence (CI)

___ is similar to, and often confused with HUMINT, as CI uses many of the same techniques for the information collection.

Operational Commanders; Program Managers; Decision Makers

The function of CI is to provide direct support to ___ ___, ___ ___, and ___ ___.

(14N) Intelligence Officer

Performs and manages intelligence functions and activities to support the United States and allied forces.

(1N0X1) Operations Intelligence

Personnel assigned to this specialty prepare, maintain, and present intelligence displays, reports and briefings.

(1N1X1A) Geospatial Intelligence Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty exploit and analyze multisensor imagery in conjunction with all-source intelligence information.

(1N1X1B) Geospatial Intelligence Targeteer

Personnell assigned to this specialty make recommendations on the appropriate form required to disable an adversary's targeting system.

(1N2X1A) Electronic Signals Intelligence Exploitation Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty support SIGINT activities and operations by monitoring and collecting noncommunications electronic signal transmissions using passive receiving equipment.

(1N2X1C) Communication Signals Intelligence Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty perform communication signals intelligence analysis to include acquiring signals through optimum antenna manipulation and receiver tuning.

(1N3X1) Cryptologic Language Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty operate and manage communications equipment.

(1N4X1A) Digital Network Intelligence Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty employ techniques to collect, identify, and exploit appropriate communications to ensure accurate targeting.

(1N1X1B) Analysis and Production Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty perform detailed analysis on target network communications for additional exploitation.

(1A8X1) Airborne Crytologic Language Analyst

Personnel assigned to this specialty operate, evaluate, and manage airborne signals intelligence information systems and operations activities.

(1A8X2) Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Operator

Personnel assigned to this specialty fly as primary aircrew onboard a wide variety of aircraft to operate, evaluate, and manage airborne ISR information and related ground processing systems.

(8D000) Strategic Debriefer

Personnel assigned to this special duty collect and report intelligence information obtained from human sources in response to requirements.

(9L000) Interpreter/Translator

Personnel assigned to this reporting identifier perform duties as foreign language interpreters or translators.

(9S100) Scientific Applications Specialist

Personnel assigned to this reporting identifier apply leading edge physical sciences to perform data collection, analysis, observation, study, experimentation, acquisition, maintenance, research and development, fielding of prototype and operational active and passive sensors and systems.


Which intelligence discipline provides unique intelligence information, complements intelligence derived from other sources, and is often used for cueing other sensors to potential targets of interest?


What are the three subcategories of SIGINT?

Intelligence derived from the interception and analysis of non-communications.

What is ELINT?

1N3X1 & 1A8X1

What intelligence Air Force Specialties (AFS) are trained in translating and analyzing foreign languages?


Which intelligence discipline is scientific and technical intelligence obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data derived from specific technical sensors for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the target, source, emitter, or sender?


Which intelligence discipline uses people to gain information?

Support SIGINT activities and operations by monitoring and collecting non-communications electronic signal transmissions using passive receiving equipment.

What is the responsibliity of the 1N2X1A career field?

1A8X2, Airborne ISR Operator

Personnel assigned to which intelligence speicalty fly as primary aircrew onboard a wide variety of aircraft to operate, evaluate and manage airborne ISR information and related ground processing systems?


All intelligence professionals are considered to be ___.

8D000, Strategic Debriefer

Personnel assigned to the special duty identifier of ___ collect and report intelligence information obtained from human sources in response to requirements.


The core element of our mission is the ___ of intelligence.

Intelligence Community (IC)

The ___ ___ is a coalition of agencies and organizations within the executive branch that work both independently and collaboratively to gather the intelligence necessary to conduct foreign relations and national security activites.

Primary Mission

The IC's ___ ___ is to collect and convey the essential information the President and members of the policymaking, law enforcement, and military communities require to execute their appointed duties.

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act

The ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ of 2004 established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) to better unify and manage the efforts of the IC.

16; 8; 8

The IC consists of __ agencies with __ members from the DOD and __ non-DOD members.

President; National Security Council (NSC); Homeland Security Council (HSC)

The US Iintelligence effort provides the ___, ___, and ___ with timely, accurate, and insightful infomration about the activities, capabilities, plans, and intentions of foreign powers, organizations, and persons, and their agents.

Executive; Executive; Legislative

Although the IC is led by the ___ branch, it is subject to oversight from both the ___ and ___ branches.

National Security Council (NSC)

The ___ ___ ___ is the principal forum to consider national security issues that require presidnetial decision.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS)

The ___ ___ ___ ___ is the military advisor to the NSC.

Homeland Security Council (HSC)

The ___ ___ ___ coordinates homeland security related activities among IC members and promotes the effective development and implementation of homeland security policies.

DNI (Director of National Intelligence)

The ___ ___ ___, appointed by the President with Senate approval, serves as the head of the IC.


The DNI has overall responsibility for intelligence support to the President and the ___ ___ ___ management of the IC.

Office of the DNI (ODNI)

The ___ __ ___ ___ is charged with effectively integrating foreign, military, and domestic intelligence in defense of the US and its interests abroad.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

The ___ was created with the signing of the National Security Act of 1947.


An independent intelligence agency responsible to the President through the DNI and accountable to the American people through the intelligence oversight committees of the US Congress.

Langley, VA

Headquartered in ___, ___, the CIA serves as a source of analysis on topics of concern and works closely with the other organizations in the IC to ensure the intelligence consumer receives the best intelligence possible.

Bureau of Intelligence and Research

As the intelligence arm of the Department of State, the ___ of ___ and ___ has the primary mission of harnessing intelligence to serve US diplomacy.

Department of Energy (DOE)

The ___ oversees and protects vital national security capabilities ranging from nuclear weapons to energy research and developmental projects.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

The mandate of the ___ is to reduce US vulnerability to terrorism and to detect, prevent, and respond to terrorist attacks.

Office of Intelligence and Analysis

Within the DHS, the ___ of ___ and ___ is responsible for using information and intelligence from multiple sources to identify and assess current and future threats.

Promoting understanding of threats through intelligence analysis; collecting information and intelligence pertinent to homeland security; sharing information necessary for action; and managing intelligence for the homeland security enterprise

What are the four strategic areas the Office of Intelligence and Analysis focuses on?

Department of the Treasury (DOT)

The ___ analyzes foreign intelligence related to economic policy and participates with Department of State in the overt collection of general foreign economic information.

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)

The ___ is responsible for enforcing the controlled substance laws and regulations of the US.


The DEA's Office of National Security Intelligence became a member of the IC in ___.

Tactical, investigative, and strategic

What are the DEA's three categories of drug intelligence?

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

The ___, as an intelligence and law enforcement agency, is responsible for understanding threats to our national security and penetrating national and transitional networks that have a desire and capability to harm the US.

Coast Guard Intelligence

___ ___ ___ strives to create decision advantage to advance US interests by providing timely, actionable, and relevant intelligence to shape Coast Guard operations, planning, and decision-making, and to support national and homeland security intelligence requirements.


The Coast Guard became a member of the IC in ___.


The ___ is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military.

Consumer; Producer

The DOD is both a ___ and ___ of intelligence.

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)

Located on Polling AFB in Washington DC, the ___ is a DOD combat support agency.

National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)

Headquartered in Springfield, VA, the ___ operates major facilities in the St. Lois, MO and Washington, DC areas.

Combat Support

The NGA is a DOD ___ ____ Agency and fields support teams worldwide.

National Reconnaissance Office (NRO)

The ___ designs, builds, and operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites.

National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS)

The ___/___ is the IC's executive agent for all SIGINT activities.

Gort Gordon, GA (NSAG); Lackland AFB, TX (NSAT); Kenia, HI (NSAH); and Denver, CO

What are the four primary cryptologic centers of the NSA/CSS?

Provide the ability to understand the secret communications of our foreign adversaries while protecting our own communications.

What is the NSA's mission?

Service Cryptologic Components (SCC)

___s are the US military's service SIGINT activities that are subordinate to DIRNSA/CHCSS.

Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)

The Army's ___ assists with the coordination between Army tactical units and NSA/CSS concerning SIGINT matters for Army resources and assets.

Fleet Cyber Command (FLTCYBERCOM)

The Navy's ___ provides guidance to cryptologic activities tasked by both Navy and NSA/CSS.

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency (AFISRA)

The Air Force's ___ assists with the coordination of Air Force cryptologic activities, NSA/CSS, and Air Force or theater commanders on SIGINT matters.

Intelligence Activity (MCIA)

The Marine Corps' ___ is the Marine Corps' SCC.

Coast Guard Cryptologic Group (CGCG)

___ is the Coast Guard's SCC.


What are the NSA/CSS's give Service Cryptologic Components (SCS)s?

Cryptologic Service Groups (CSG)

___s work under the direct authority of DIRNSA and their primary function is to facilitate timely SIGINT support to unified commands, joint task force commanders, or other operational commanders.

Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI)

The ___ of ___ ___, located at the National Maritime Intelligence Center(NMIC) in Suitland, MD, is the lead DOD production center for global maritime intelligence.

Marine Corps

The ___ ___ produces tactical and operational intelligence for battlefield support.


Provides critical, multidiscipline intelligence, counterintelligence, and information warfare support to Army commanders at all echelons.

National Air and Space Intelligence Center

The Air Force's main production facility is the ___ ___ and ___ ___ ___.

National Security Council (NSC)

What serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating policy among various government agencies?

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

Who is responsible for reducing US vulnerability to terrorism and to detect, prevent, and respond to terrorist attacks?

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)

Who is the primary military advisory council to the President of the US and SecDef?

Director of National Intelligence (DNI)

Who is appointed by the President and establishes objectives and priorities for the Intelligence Community?

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)

Whose mission is it to provide timely and objective military intelligence to warfighter, defense policy makers, and force planners?


List the four primary cryptologic centers.

United States Code (USC)

The codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States.

Title 10; Title 18; Title 32; Title 50

What are the four Titles of the USC in which ISR professionals should have a basic understanding?

Title 10

This Title of the USC outlines the role of the armed forces.

Subtitle A - General Military Law; Subtitle B - Army; Subtitle C - Navy and Marine Corps; Subtitle D - Air Force; Subtitle E - Reserve Components

Name the five subtitles of Title 10.


Title ___ outlines crimes and criminal procedures, and the roles of law enforcement within the United States.


Title ___ outlines the role of the US National Guard.


Title ___ outlines the role of war and national defense.

10; 50

Title ___ is used to colloquially refer to DOD and military operations, while Title ___ refers to intelligence agencies, intelligence activities, and covert action.


Chapter ___ of Title 50, National Security, contains laws on matters of intelligence access, protection of national security information, and coordination of intelligence activities.


Chapter ___ of Title 50, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance, contains laws governing physical searches and electronic surveillance to ensure we aren't breaking any laws while conducting these activities.


How many Titles within the US Code should ISR professionals have a basic understanding?

Title 10

Which Title provides the legal basis for the roles, missions, and organizations of each of the services as well as the DOD?

Title 32

Which Title outlines the role of the US National Guard?

Title 50

Which Title contains numerous laws that cover intelligence activities?

Title 10 & Title 50

Which two Titles in combination regulate the activities and funding of the US Intelligence Community?

The Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (A2)

The focal point for the functional management of all Air Force ISR capabilities; Reports to internal and external consumers (Congress, ODNI, Joint Staff).

Air Force Intelligence Analysis Agency (AFIAA)

This agency provides the AF/A2 intelligence, special security services, and imagery products.

US Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency (AFISRA)

The field operating agency that reports to A2 and is located on Security Hill, Lackland AFB, Texas.

National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC)

The ___, with headquarters at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, is the primary DOD producer of foreign aerospace intelligence.

August 16, 2000

The 70th ISRW, with headquarters at Fort George G. Meade, MD, was activated on ___ ___, ___.


The Air Force's only cryptologic wing that trains and equips cryptologic information operations specialists to carry out AFISRA's and NSA's multi service operations.

480 ISRW

The ___ ___, with headquarters at Langley Air Force Base, VA, is the Air Force leader in globally networked ISR operations.

DCGS (Distributed Common Ground System)

Regionally focused, globally linked, the AF ___ is the cornerstone of successful Air Force, joint, and coalition ISR operations

Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC)

The ___ provides national authorities quality technical measurements to monitor nuclear treaty compliance and develops advanced proliferation monitoring technologies to preserve our nation's security.

Air Force Targeting Center (AFTC)

The ___ is subordinate to Air Combat Command and resides on Joint Base Langley-Eustis, VA.

Targeting Reachback Capabilities

The AFTC provides ___ ___ ___ to air and space operations centers (AOC) to include geospatial intelligence, target analysis, and precision engagement intelligence.

Deputy Chief of Staff for ISR (A2)

Who is the focal point for the functional management of all Air Force intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities?

AFIAA (Air Force Intelligence Analysis Agency)

What agency analyzes foreign air and air defense tactics and training, and was activated as a Field Operating Agency of the United States Air Force, on 1 FEB 2001?

AFISRA (Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency)

What agency organizes, trains, equips, and presents assigned forces and capabilities to conduct ISR utilizing assets ranging from worldwide ground sites to manned and unmanned airborne platforms?

Air Force Targeting Center (AFTC)

Who produces and delivers timely, tailored targeting and geospatial intelligence and conducts precise Point Positioning and CDE?