How many sparkling wine appelations are there in the Loire?
Which 3 are studied here?
Cremant de Loire, Sparkling Vouvray and Sparkling Saumur
How much does sparkling wine account for in total Loire output?
Where were the first sparkling wine cellars based? Why?
Saumur, cave space
What is the dominant grape variety in Loire sparkling wines?
Describe a typical chenin based loire sparkling wine.
Med intensity apple and citrus flavours, light toasty autolysis notes - 2-3 development leads to honey. High acidity, most are Brut
Describe the limits of the cremant de loire appelation
Middle Loire, Anjou Saumur and Touraine only, 200km stretch along the river. 2,100ha of vineyard area
Describe the climate of CdL
Cool climate with some influence of the atlantic.
Why is the climate suitable for sparkling wine production?
Low pot alcohol, retain acidty, just ripe fruit flavours
What are the hazards posed in CdL?
Fungal disease and untimely rainfall
Describe the soil types found in CdL
Wide ranging including: Clay-limestone, flint-clay, sand, gravel and tuff. Schist and limestone in Anjou and Chalk in Touraine. Good drainage and water retention from limestone across the board.
Why were there available cave spaces in Saumur?
Underlying Tuff rock historically excavated for building. Leadig to chambers with little fluctuation in temp and humidty
How might the high limestone soils be managed?
Rootstocks with lime tolerance to facilitate iron take up and protect against chlorosis. Eg Fercal, Riparia Gloire de Montpelier.
What are the 7 permitted grape varietes in CdL?
CB, CF, CS, Grolleau Noir and Gris, Pineau d'Aunis, PN and Ch
Which notable variety is not allowed and why?
SB, aromatic profile is not suited to tradtional method sparkling production
What is the max yield for CdL?
When do producers decalre for CdL?
What is the most common type of press for CdL?
Pneumatic, low phenolics
Give an example of a top cuvee fermented in oak.
Bouvet-Ladubay's Cuvee Tresor
What is the minimum lees age time?
What are the requirements of Prestige de Loire?
Introduced in 2018 for wines dating back to 2010. Applies accros CdL, Anjou, Saumur and Vouvray. White, CB, CF, Ch and PN. 24 months lees, vintage and brut. Producers must meet environmental standards, aiming for sustainable viticulutre within 5 years.
What is the divide of production I CdL?
19 merchants, 10 coops and 400 growers. 9 largest houses account for 80% of production.
What is the domestic market share and where are the key export markets?
Half domestic. Germany, USA and UK
What are the similarities between Saumur and Vouvray sparkling?
Both produce more sparkling than still 60:40. Min 12 months between tirage and release. Deep cellars carved from Tuff.
How much Saumur Mousseaux has been produced in the last 5 years?
How large is the area designated as Saumur Mousseaux?
What are the grape varieties for SM
Min 60% CB, max 10% SB. Rose min 60% CF, max 10% sB
What types of harvesting are permitted in SM?
Hand and machine
What is the dominant grape variety in Vouvray mousseaux?
Chenin Blanc, Orbois also permitted when in the minority in the blend
What is the size of Vouvray mousseaux?
Why is sparkling wine an attractive option for growers?
Less risk - grapes can be picked earlier and woth lower min ripeness, avoiding rain and botrytis issues. Permitted yields are higher than for still AOC wine.
What are the max yields for Vouvray and Saumur M.
V = 65hl/ha, S = 67hl/ha