Real Estate Study Guide

What does PETE stand for?

Police Power, Eminent Domain, Taxation, Escheat

What is Escheat?

Abandonment (dying with no will and no heirs with the property being taken by the state government)

How is LTV calculated?

Loan amount divided by sale price or appraised value (whichever is lower) = LTV

What is Eminent domain?

It is the government taking private property for public good.

What does a title insurance policy list?

All recorded defects against the title. It just covers issues that have been recorded.

What does a standard title insurance policy insure against?

Any recorded title defects or leins.

What are some things generally covered under an extended title policy?

Water rights, questions of survey and adverse possession claims.

What does a standard title insurance policy cover?

Recorded title defects and liens

What documents would be a condensed history of all records that affect the title?

An abstract

What is an abstract?

A history of all recorded documents that affect the title.

What is a survey used for?

To find boundaries and check for encroachments.

What is an affidavit of title?

A sworn statement concerning the title.

What is a chain of title?

A list of all owners.

What is a special assessment tax? And what happens if it's not paid?

It is a real estate tax and if not paid, the property could be auctioned off.

What is Ad valorem?

Ad valorem tax is a tax whose amount amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in the case of a sales tax or value-added tax.

What are Ad valorem taxes for?

General assessment tax, not a special assessment tax.

How are special assessment taxes paid?

They are normally paid each year for a certain number of years by the owners of the properties that have been improved.

What do special assessment taxes cover and what do general assessment taxes cover?

Special assessment taxes are normally to cover the cost of sewers and sidewalks. General assessment taxes are to cover public good items such as police and fire protection.

What deals with safety in construction?

Building codes.

What is a tax on the land plus improvements?

General assessment tax. (The more value (ad valorem) in the real property, the more one pays in taxes.

What is used to keep things in order such as zoning and building codes?

Police power.

What is the ability of the government to tax private property?


What word describes Escheat?


What does TAR stand for?

TAX, Assessed Value, Rate. As a whole, it basically means taxes.

Test for intent (Method of Fixtures)

Attachment, Adaptation, Agreement

Which of the following describes an encroachment? Liquid asset, form of trespass, variance, buffer zone

Form of trespass

An estate is...

The right of ownership.

What rights do I have with Fee Simple Absolute?

Absolutely ALL the rights.

How long does Fee Simple Absolute last?


What rights do I have with Fee Simple Defeasable?

All rights by one.

How long does a Life Estate last?

For the life of the grantee.

What happens when grantee of Life Estate dies?

Property reverts back to Grantor or third party (remainderman)

Which estate can there exist a Remainderman?

A life estate

How many Freehold Estates are there and what are they?

There are 3 freehold estates.They are: 1. Fee Simple or Fee Simple Absolute 2. Fee SImple Defeasable 3. Life Estate

Upon the death of the life tenant, the estate returns to...

Fee Simple Absolute.The Grantor or the Remainderman now owns the property in Fee SImple Absolute.

A life estate is ____________________ but generally not inheritable.


A life estate is transferable but generally not __________________.


How many leasehold estates are there and what are they?

There are 4 Leasehold Estates.They are: 1. Estate for Years 2. Periodic Estate 3. Estate at Will 4. Estate at Sufferance

What interest does a tenant have in the property?


What interest does a landlord have in the property?

Lease fee

What is an Estate at Sufferance?

Landlord is "suffering" because tenant hasn't paid rent and refuses to leave so now an eviction is necessary to get tenant off the property. The tenant is insufferable.

What is an Estate for Years?

An estate which lasts a definite amount of time. Has an expiration. This is the most common type of Leasehold estate.

What are two ways the government can acquire privately held land?

Eminent domain & Escheat

An estate that lasts only so long as a specified condition is met is known as a

Qualified Fee

An irrevocable right to use the lands of another is called?

An easement

A holder of a freehold estate has rights of...


Which estate usually does NOT terminate upon the death of the holder of the estate?

Estate for years

Real property taxes are computed based on the property's...

Assessed value

What are the four encumbrances?

Deed restrictions, Encroachments, Easements, Liens

What are the government's right in land?

P.E.T.E: Police power, eminent domain, taxation, escheat

How many encumbrances are there and what are they?

4. Liens, encroachments, easements, deed restrictions (Covenants)

Who has the easement on their property?

Serving tenement

What is the difference between a license and an encumbrance?

A license is revocable

What is the circle formula for taxes?


Freehold estates are for how long?


Leasehold estates are for how long?

Definite period of time. Has a termination date.

Which taxes always take priority?

County government taxes

Who collects property taxes?

The county

What type of process will reveal an encroachment?

ILC (Improvement Location Certificate)

What does ILC stand for?

Improvement Location Certificate

Can a corporation own a property? If so, how?

Yes, by severalty

What form of ownership allows the right of survivorship?

Joint tenancy

What's the best way for a married couple to take title?

Consult with an attorney

What act allows for common interest communities to levy (impose) mandatory assessments?

Common Interest Ownership Act ALLOWS common interest communities to exist.We do exist, we can then file a declaration.We can now levy mandatory assessments.

How do condo owners own the common elements?

Tenants in common

What type of ownership will allow all parties to have equal ownership?

Joint tenancy

How would we take title if we didn't want equal shares?

Tenants in common

TRUE OR FALSE: In a cooperative, the individual would have to sign a deed in order to sale the property.

False. In a cooperative, individuals have ownership of stock, shares.

What document do individuals use to transfer property between individuals?


If government gives property to an individual it's called?


How does an individual give their property to the government?

A dedication

What are the essential elements of a valid deed?

Competent grantorSigns the deedIdentifiable grantee who accepts the deedWith legal descriptionWords of conveyanceConsideration

The deed that gives the grantee the most guarantees is?

General warranty

What five covenants does a general warranty deed give the grantee?

FAQCWFurther assurance "If anything should happen in the future I I will come back. I will sign anything I need to sign. You have my assurance."Against encumbrances "If there's an encumbrance, I have told you about it and if there's a mortgage on this property, I will pay it off. There will be no encumbrances on this property when you give this deed. I assure you."Quiet enjoyment "No third party is going to come knocking at your door saying 'this property is mine!' I guarantee you quiet enjoyment."Covenant of siesen "I've seized the property and I have a right to convey it. I'm telling you that I own it and I am guaranteeing my ownership and I have a right to convey it."Warranty forever "Forever and ever and ever I will tell you this, may God strike me dead. I have ownership, I'm going to give this to you, it's yours, forever. I give my warranty on my life.

What's a material fact?

Something, if known, might change a decision.

Must a broker disclose a material fact?

Yes. If the broker knows about it, she must disclose it.

When does a property actually transfer ownership?

Upon delivery and acceptance.

Where do you go to learn or give constructive notice?

The courthouse.

In a real estate transaction, who goes to the courthouse and gives constructive notice?

The title company.

In a real estate transaction, who gives actual notice?

The broker.

How is actual notice given?

The broker looks around the property, she uses her eyes.

Does a buyer have to buy both a standard and an extended title policy?


If a buyer has a mortgage on the property they're going to have to buy ______________________________ insurance.

Mortgagee's Title

If there's not a mortgage on the property, what kind of title insurance does the buyer have to purchase?

Standard title insurance

What does standard title insurance cover?

All the things that might have happened if the title insurance company made a mistake

What does extended title insurance cover?

All things that might have been missed when actual notice was taken.-Adverse possession-Prescriptive easement-Things that the courthouse doesn't have record of

What's the difference between a title report and a title opinion?

A title opinion is done by an attorney, abstract is needed for an opinion.

Definition of an appraisal

An estimate or opinion of MARKET VALUE supported by an analysis of relevant property data.

What does CMA stand for in terms of appraisal?

Comparative Market Analysis

What further designations can appraisers obtain and where from?

MAI: Member of the Appraisal InstituteSRA: Senior Residential AppraiserFrom: the Appraisal Institute

An appraisal is required for all of what type of loans?

Federally related loans such as conventional, FHA, VA.

What does CMA stand for in terms of a real estate licensee? What other acronyms are related to CMA?

Competitive Market AnalysisOthers: BPO - Broker's Price Opinion BOV - Broker's Opinion of Value

What does CMA/BPO/BOV do?

Assists a seller and a buyer in determining value.

Who performs a CMA/BPO/BOV?

A broker.

Can a client be charged a fee for the CMA/BPO/BOV?

Yes, a broker can charge a fee but should make it clear that it is not an appraisal.

What is the difference between Market Value and Market Price?

Market Value is the ideal price a seller wants for their property. Market Price is what a buyer actually pays for it. (The price I want versus the price I got)

What does DUST stand for? And these are essential elements of _________________?

DEMAND (desire, affordability)UTILITY (usefulness, does the property fulfill a specific need, it is subjective; based on needs and desires of specific potential buyer)SCARCITY (there is a finite supply of land, land in specific areas is limited)TRANSFERABILITY (must have marketable title)These are essential elements of VALUE.

What is DUST?

It is value in the real estate market. Basically, it's the worth based on desirability. It's in the same category as Market Value & Market Price.

What is the Highest and Best use?

It is the use that produces the best return on investment over time.

What is the meaning of supply and demand?

Seller's market versus buyer's market.

Prices moves __________________ of supply.

Opposite. When supply goes up, price goes down.

Price moves ___________________ demand.

With. When demand goes up, price does up.

Does supply and demand determine sales prices and rental rates?


What is the most important principle in appraisal and what does it mean?

Substitution is the most important principle. It is the basis of the sales comparison approach and is used in all three approaches.

What is never a liquid asset?


The borrower's right to cure the default and stop the foreclosure sale is _________________________.

Equitable redemption

A mortgage pledging personal property, as well as real property, as security for a debt is a _______________________.

Package mortgage

The clause that appears in both the note and the mortgage that allows the lender to demand immediate payment of the entire debt if the borrower defaults is an ______________________________.

Acceleration clause

A loan that is repaid in one single lump sum at the end of its life is called a straight loan or _______________________.

Term loan

A loan in which payments are scheduled so the entire principal balance is repaid by the maturity date is a ____________________________.

fully amortized loan

A final payment that is larger than preceding payments is a _______________________ payment.


A _________________________ is used when more than one property is pledged as security for a single loan.

Blanket mortgage

A mortgage given by the purchaser to the seller in partial payment for the property is a ____________________________________________.

Purchase money mortgage

The different between a property's market value and the debts against it is ____________________.


A loan that allows a borrower to make smaller payments of interest and principal but has a balloon payment at the end is a ______________________________.

Partially amortized loan.

What does amortized mean?

Reduce or extinguish a debt by money regularly put aside.

The clause that entitles a lender to accelerate the loan if it is assumed WITHOUT THE LENDER'S APPROVAL is an _____________________________________________.

Alienation clause

Points charges by lenders are computed as a percentage of the _________________________________.

Mortgage amount

The higher the loan-to-value ratio, the higher the __________________________________.


A contract that gives a buyer the right to occupy the property now and receive a deed after payment in full of the purchase price is a _____________________________.

Contract for deed

The mortgage makes payments to the mortgagor in a _____________________________.

Reverse mortgage

The process of converting a future income stream into an expression of present value is _______________________.


The cost of replacing an improvement with another of similar quality but not an exact replica is ___________________________.

Replacement cost

Loss in value due to causes external to the property is ____________________________.

Economic obsolescence

A method of valuing a property by complying the subject property to chi liar properties that have recently sold is the __________________________.

Market data approach (sales comparison)

Demand, utility, scarcity, and transferability are essential elements of ____________________.


To obtain the value using the capitalization approach, an appraiser would divide the _______________________ by the capitalization rate.

Net operating income

An appraisal is an _________________________ of value.


The market data approach is based on the principle of ___________________________.


An appraiser calculates accrued depreciation in the _______________________.

cost approach

When an appraiser determines the accrued depreciation, outdated plumbing fixtures would be considered ______________________________________.

Functional obsolescence

An appraiser estimating operating expenses is using the ____________________________.

Income approach

The market data approach is also known as __________________________.

Sales comparison

The step in which the appraiser weighs all approaches to determine a final value is __________________________.


An appraiser determining the value of shopping center would use the _________________________________.

Income approach

The best approach to determine the value of library would be the __________________________.

Cost approach

What common test words are associated with "Sales Comparison/Market Data"?

Residential/single familyCMA - BOV, BPOSubjectComparables

What common test words are associated with "Cost Approach"?

Unique Property (schools, churches)No incomeDepreciationAppreciationReplacementReproduction

What common test words are associated with "Income Approach"?

NOI (Net Operating Income)InvestmentCap Rate (Capitalization Rate)

A contract whose terms have been explicitly declared either verbally or in writing is an ____________________________ contract.


When only one party has the right to void the contract is a _______________________ contract.


When only one party to the agreement makes a promise, the result is a _________________________ contract.


A contract created by the actions of the parties is an ___________________ contract.


A contract with a minor will be ______________________.


A lease agreement in which the tenant pays rent only is a _____________________________.

Gross lease (it's GROSS that I even have to pay rent!)

A lease agreement in which the tenant pays rent plus operating expenses is _______________________.

Net lease (I'm caught in a net of bills and there's no getting out!)

A unilateral contract in which buyer has the right to purchase a property from the seller, if buyer chooses to do so is an _________________.


A party attempting to enforce an oral executory contract for the purchase of real estate would be stopped by the _____________________________.

Statute of frauds

___________________________ means that there was an offer and acceptance; there was no fraud, misrepresentation, or mistake: and the consent was genuinely and freely given.

Mutual agreement

The party who makes an offer to another is known as the ___________________.


An accepted offer becomes binding on the Offeror upon _________________________________.

Communication of acceptance

Actual knowledge to enter into a contract by intentionally deceiving a party is ____________________.


Something of value given in exchange for something else of value is ________________________.


___________________________ is not consideration but may be required as part of liquidated damaged in a purchase contract.

Earnest money

Additional material attached to and made part of an offer is an ______________________.


To modify a written contract, both parties must sign an ___________________________.


The buyer has equitable title in an _______________________ contract.


The right of parties to a contract to sue each other to perform the contract terms is _________________________________.

Specific performance

When the seller keeps only the earnest money or other things of value of a buyer who is in default, the contract remedy is ________________________________.

Liquidated damages

The priority of a recorded instrument is determined by the date of ________________________.


When an attorney or title insurance company traces the ownership of a parcel of land to the beginning of its recorded history, the process is known as a ____________________.

Title search

A recorded notice stating that a pending lawsuit may affect title to a particular property is a __________________.

Lis pendens

A document that summarizes all recorded interests affecting title to a given parcel of land is an ______________________________.

Abstract of title

All the documents that comprise the history of the title are the ______________________.

Chain of title

Protection against incomplete or defective records of the title to land can best be obtained by securing ________________________.

Title insurance

In many cases it is better to ______________________ asbestos rather than to __________________ it.


A problem that is not covered by standard or extended title insurance is an ______________________.


When prorating, an item paid in advance will be a ______________________ to the buyer.


The federal act that applies to closings and requires a good faith estimate of cost and a HUD-1 Settlement Statement is ______________________.


An item paid in arrears will be a ____________ to the buyer.


Most deeds to be recorded must be _____________________.


A new loan will show on the settlement statement as a buyer _________________.


Shared items, such as property taxes and water bills, will be ___________________ between the buyer and the seller.


____________________ is an odorless, colorless gas that, if found, is often mitigated by adding ventilation.


What is the definition of notarized?

Document that is legalized by authority.

A written legal document by which ownership of real property is transferred from one party to another is a ___________.


The two parties to a deed are the __________________ and _____________________.

Grantor and grantee

In order to convey title, a deed must be signed by the __________________.


Title does not pass to the grantee until the deed is ________________________________.

Delivered and accepted

Assurance to grandees that they will not be disturbed by someone else with a lawful interest in the property is the covenant of _______________________________.

Quiet enjoyment

The type of deed that is considered the best deed for a grantee is a ____________________________.

General warranty deed

A deed that conveys whatever interest in the property the grantor holds at the time of conveyance and contains no covenants or warranties is an ______________________________.

Quitclaim deed

A deed with warranties that apply only to the period the grantor owned the property is a _______________________________.

Special warranty deed

Property owned by one person is said to be owned in ___________________.


A form of concurrent ownership in which each tenant owns an undivided ownership share in the entire property and has no right of survivorship is __________________________________.

Tenants in common

A form of concurrent ownership in which all owners have equal shares in the property and the right of survivorship is _____________________________.

Joint tenancy

An undivided interest in a resort condominium as a tenant in common for a specific period each year is a ____________________.


A condominium is created by filing a _________________________.


________________________ does not require co-owners to go through probate to obtain a title.

Joint tenancy

A person who holds stock in a building owned by a corporation owns the right to a ___________________________.


List two ways the government can acquire privately held land.

Eminent domainEscheat

Public control of land use by the government is known as _____________________________.

Police power

A right of use or enjoyment which one person has in the lands of another for a specific purpose is an ________________________.


A tenant's right to possess real estate for the term of a lease is a _____________________________.

Leasehold estate

A tree limb that overhangs into a neighbor's yard is an example of an ______________________________.


An easement is not ____________________, but a license is.


A claim that one person has against the land of another to secure payment of a debt is a _______________________.


A person who has not been paid for work performed on real property may record a ______________________________.

Mechanic's lien

A party wall or a shared driveway is an example of an easement _________________________.


The right of an owner to occupy a parcel of real estate forever is a ________________________________.

Fee simple absolute

The type of lien that takes priority over all others is the ___________________________________ for property taxes.

Government lien

As part of their right to govern land use, local municipalities enact and enforce ________________________________.

Zoning ordinances

A freehold estate is an estate of ownership with a(n) _______________________________.

Indefinite duration

Leasehold estates are estates of possession with a(n) __________________________.

Definite duration

Zoning laws are set at a _______________________.

Local level

Deed restrictions are created as a form of _______________________________ over land use.

Private control

All property other than real estate is known as __________________________.

Personal property

Real estate consists of three things: land, improvements and ___________________.


If a seller is taking a fixture, it must have been _________________________ from the purchase agreement.


Land is not considered a __________________ because it cannot be sold quickly.

Liquid asset

When articles of personal property are permanently attached to the improvements, they become _______________________.


Before a new building can be inhabited, a __________________________ of occupancy is required.

Certificate of occupancy

Permission to vary from strict compliance with zoning requirements may be obtained in the form of a ___________________.


When a previously established use does not comply with requirements of a new zoning ordinance, it may be allowed to continue as a _______________________________.

Non-conforming use

Townships, sections, and meridians are used in the ____________________________________ form of legal description.

Rectangular government survey

A legal description that uses compass degrees is __________________________.

Metes and bounds

The type of legal description used in most urban areas is ____________________________________.

Lot, block and subdivision

A _________________________ may be used to separate two incompatible zoning uses.

Buffer zone

Real estate and fixtures are transferred with a ______________.


Personal property is transferred with a ______________________________.

Bill of sale

If the buyer is keeping the seller's personal property, it must be ____________________________ in the purchase agreement.


What is an example of non-conforming use?

A retail store in a residential neighborhood.

What other word also means mortgage?

Deed of trust

What ways can property be foreclosed?

1. No principal/interest (no payment)2. No taxes/HOA/Special Assessment3. No insurance4. Removal of improvements5. Alienation without consent6. Waste (32 cats, meth lab, depreciating property in an unusual way)

What circle formula applies to any situation involving appreciation or depreciation? What does each part stand for? What is the hook?

A = the value AFTER (a=after) the percent change.B = the value BEFORE (b=before) the percent change.Per = the formula percentage (ALWAYS 100%)If it states "appreciation" within the question, you will ADD the percentage specified to PER.If it states "depreciation" within the question, you will SUBTRACT the percentage specified to PER.Hook: Think of A=appreciation B=depreciation and that's PERfect.

What circle formula is used for capitalization? What does each part stand for? What is the hook?

I = (income) Net Operating Income/NOIR = (rate) Capitalization Rate (investor rate of return, also affected by market forces)V = value (what can be paid for a property to get the expected return)Hook: IRV is an investor who only cares about capitalization.(Be sure to compare apples to apples: monthly to monthly, annual to annual)

What is the circle formula used for taxes? What does each part stand for? What is the hook?

T = TaxesA = Assessed ValueR = RateHook: We get stuck in the TAR when we have to pay our taxes.

What is the circle formula for Gross Rent Multiplier? What does each part stand for?

Value = Value of the propertyGRM = Gross Rent MultiplierRent = Rent amount(Be sure to compare apples to apples: monthly to monthly, annual to annual)

Appraisals are not required for which type of loan?

Seller-carry loan

USPAP matches...

Appraiser. (An appraiser is expected to follow USPAP: Uniform Standards of Professional Appraiser Practices)

Highest and best use matches...

Appraisal. (An appraiser must show the current highest best use in an appraisal)

BPO matches...

NOT an appraisal.

Increasing returns matches...

Contribution. (Improvements that add more value than they cost)

Most important principle matches...

Substitution. (The most important appraisal principle of value is substitution. It's used in all three methods of valuation)

Progression matches...

Conformity. (The idea that under-improved property tends to increase)

Accrued depreciation matches...

The cost approach. (Accrued depreciation is subtracted from the cost to build new when determining market value in the cost approach)

Present value matches...

Income approach. (Present value is what an investor can pay for a property and receive the capitalization rate the investor desires)

Comparables matches...

Sales comparison approach. (Comparables are similar properties that have recently sold)

The most profitable price a market can bring is _________________________?

Market value

The price paid for a property that has closed is the _____________________________?

Market Price

What is Anticipation?

Future benefits determine current value

What is conformity?

It's the concept that values tend to move towards surroundings.

What is directly related to conformity? And what does it mean?

Regression (regrets): When the value of the over-improved property decreases.Progression (proud - homeowner proud that property's value is increasing due to someone else's improvement): When the value of the under-improved increases.

What is contribution?

Determines the increasing or decreasing returns on improvements.Example: Pools have no contribution in Colorado.

What are the methods of valuation?

Sales Comparison/Market Data ApproachCost ApproachIncome Approach

What is Sales Comparison/Market Data Approach

It is a method of valuation

What is the most important method of valuation for residential property and vacant land?

Sales comparison/market data approach

What is another term for the Market Data Approach?

Sales Comparison

What is another term for Sales Comparison?

Market Data Approach

When referring to a property appraisal, the ___________________ must NEVER be adjusted.


Increasing Returns refers to...

Improvements that add more value than they cost.

Decreasing Returns refers to...

Improvements that add less value than they cost.

When referring to property appraisal, adjustments are always made to the __________________________ to make them similar to the ________________.

Sold comparableSubject

In a rapidly changing market, Comparables that have sold within __________________________ and up to __________________________ should be used.

6 months12 months

To help determine the value when a comp has more than a subject, you will ___________________________.


To help determine the value, when a comp has less than a subject, you will ___________________________.


`What is the Paired Sales Analysis?

It is to determine the cost of a bedroom/bathroom when comparing properties.

What method is used to determine the cost of a bedroom/bathroom when comparing properties.

Paired Sales Analysis

In the Sales Comparison Approach used for both residential and commercial?

No, only residential.The income approach is used for commercial.

What type is the cost approach used for?

It is the most important method for new construction and unique or special-purposes properties, such as churches or schools.

What is directly related to the cost approach?

Reproduction: Cost to build a REPLICA with the same or highly similar material.Replacement: Cost to replace improvements with the same FUNCTIONALITY/UTILITY.

In the cost approach, what must we do to land?

Land must be deducted from the improvements that depreciate.

In the cost approach, how do you determine the cost to build?

Cost to build new - accrued depreciation + land value - valueExample: cost to build (reproduction or replacement)Cost to build- value of land_______________value+ land_______________Final value

Reproduction cost new is used for...

Historic Properties

What is depreciation?

Loss of value for any reason.

How many types of deterioration are there and what are they?

There are THREE:1. Physical Obsolescence: deferred maintenance, wear & tear.2. Functional Obsolescence: Obsolete equipment, poor floor plan. Example: outdated lighting or 4 bdrm home with one bathroom.3. Economic Obsolescence (external/locational obsolescence): External factors/location/surroundings - determined through a neighborhood analysis. *It is outside the property boundaries. Example: property is in a flight path from a nearby airport or new a landfill.

What is the income approach used for?

Properties that generate income such as an apartment building, shopping center or office building.

What is the capitalization rate (cap rate)?

It's how investors determine what they will pay. It is the process of converting estimated future income into present value.

How do investors determine they will pay for a property?

It will be based on a rate of return or capitalization rate (cap rate).

What is another term for capitalization rate (cap rate)?

Computation technique

What is Computational Technique?

Capitalization Rate (cap rate)

What is the process of converting estimated future income into present value?

Capitalization, computational technique

What does NOI stand for?

Net Operating Income

What approach does IRV fall under?

Income approach

Which approach does A per B fall under?

The Cost Approach

What is the Gross Rent Multiplier?

It is a simplified alternative to capitalization that takes into account gross income but not vacancies, bad debts or expenses. It is used primarily for single-family rental homes.

What is used primarily for single-family rental homes?

GRM (gross rent multiplier)

What number range would be an annual GRM? What is the hook?

8-20Hook: (a year has 12 months, a month has 30 days so the year has a smaller number, the month has the bigger number).(Also, there are only 4 letters in the word year, and there are 5 letters in the word month. Again, year has the smaller number, month has the bigger number).

Is an appraisal an average?


For a single-family property, the appraiser would give the most weight to what type of approach?

The sales comparison/market data approach

For a unique property like a school, the appraiser would give the most weight to what type of approach?

The cost approach

For an income-producing property like an office building or shopping center, the appraiser would give the most weight to what type of approach?

The income approach

What are the elements of a valid contract?

Competent partiesThey have to signThey must have a meeting of the mindsLawful objectivesConsideration

What are the essential elements of value?


If fraud was perpetrated, what would the contract be?


If one element of a contact was missing, the contract would be...?

Void. There wouldn't be a contract.

Are there implied contracts in Colorado?

No, all contracts are in writing and signed. One exception is a lease for 12 months or less.

When is a contract executed?

At closing

When would a broker use an addendum?

When they need to add to an offer.

When would a broker use an amendment?

When they need to change part of a contract.

What is a novation?

A new contract. Original contract no longer exists.

Is earnest money consideration?

No. Earnest money is used for liquidated damages.

Can both the buyer and the seller sue for specific performance?


Who can have liquidated damages?

The seller.

What is an example of a unilateral contract?

An option. Only the seller is bound to the contract, the buyer can walk away. (That is his option)

What type of eviction would be caused by a breach of the lessor?

Constructive eviction

What does an estate for years always have?

A definite termination date

What type of lease would be based on gross income or sales?

Percentage lease

What would an appraiser call a loss of value?


The best house on the block might result in...


The worst house on the block will result in...


What is the circle formula for interest? What does each part stand for?

I = Annual Interest (ALWAYS annual)R = Interest RateP = Principal (mortgage amount)

What is a deed of trust?

A mortgage

What is a promissory note?

A legal instrument that evidences the debt that was secured by the mortgage or deed of trust. (A promise from the mortgagor that they will pay the debt back).

Does a promissory note require the lender's signature?

No, only the borrower.

Does the promissory note create a lien on the property?


Does a mortgage or deed of trust create a lien?


Interest on the majority of home loans is ___________________, not compounded.


What does compounded mean in terms of interest?

Compounded means that you would pay interest on top of your interest.If you owe $100 on a credit card and you pay $2.00 in interest the first time, you would then be paying interest on $102.00 on your next payment instead of on $100.00. The interest would continue to rise.

Who is the mortgagor?

The borrower

Who is the Mortgagee?

The lender

In a mortgage state, who are the involved parties? Is this judicial or non-judicial?

Mortgagor (borrower) and the mortgagee (lender).Judicial. Because there's no trustee, the foreclosure would need to go through the court system.

In a deed of trust state, who are the involved parties? Is this judicial or non-judicial?

Borrower (trustor)Lender (beneficiary)Trustee/public officialNon-judicial. Because there is a trustee involved, the foreclosure would stay out of the court system so it is non-judicial.

What is a defeasance clause?

The clause that states that when the debt is paid, the lien must be removed.

In a mortgage state, what is it called when the mortgage debt is paid and the lien is removed? Who provides it?

Satisfaction.It is provided by the mortgagee.

In a deed of trust state, what happens when the debt is paid and the lien is removed?

The trustee provides a "Deed of Reconveyance