NUTR2050E Exam 1

What is physical activity?

any movement causes by muscle contraction resulting in caloric expenditure

What is physical fitness/

set of abilities an individual possesses to perform specific physical activity

what are the two types of physical fitness?

health-related and sports-related

What are the basic principles of exercise training?

overload, progression, specificity, individuality, reversibility

What are the health-related fitness components?

flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance

What is the principle of overload?

the basic principle of exercise training incorporating the intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise

principle of progression

gradual increase in overload with training such as faster speed of running or heavier weight lifted

principle of specificity

Hans Selye's SAID principle: Specific Adaptations to Impose Demands

principle of individuality

individual responses to exercise training, such as BP

principle of reversibility

(use it or lose it) health gains gradually disappear in detraining. Uses single and chronic exercise bouts

What is the role of exercise in health promotion?

Physical inactivity causes 45% increased risk of coronary artery disease, 60% increased risk of stroke, 30% increased risk of hypertension, 59% increased risk of osteoporosis

What are the health benefits of exercise?

prevent pre-disease conditions, such as, increased body weight (visceral fat), elevated blood glucose (type 2 diabetes),

health benefits

promotes health pregnancy, improves sleep, improves immune system, reduces risk of colon, prostate, and breast cancer, reduces stress, improves self-image, prevent mental depression, aids in weight loss/control, reverses brain deterioration

How does exercise enhance health?

may cause the expression of genes with favorable health effects such as more glucose receptors in fat cells

Do most of us exercise enough?

no, more than 80% of adults and adolescents are not

How much PA is enough for health benefits?

MyActivity Pyramid, decrease sedentary activity,

How is aerobic exercise measured?

MET (metabolic rate)

How many METs is moderate-intensity exercise?


How many METs is vigorous-intensity exercise?


How much moderate-intensity aerobic ( ENDURANCE) exercise should adults engage in per week?

150 minutes or 30 minutes for 5 days

How much vigorous-intensity (HIIT) exercise should adults engage in per week?

about 20 minutes 3x a week

examples of moderate-intensity exercise

leisurely bicycling 5-8 mph, leisurely walking 2 mph, dancing, jogging, swimming, tennis, golf, pilates

examples of vigorous-intensity exercise

bicycling 12 mph or >, walking 4.5 mph or >, aerobic dancing, jogging/running 4 mph or >, basketball, competitive game, exergaming

How many times a week should an adult engage in resistance exercise per week?

2-3 times

What should be incorporated into a resistance exercise workout?

8-10 different exercises about 8-12 reps each, working all major muscle groups

How often should an adult engage in flexibility and balance exercises per week?


how often should older adults do balance exercises in a week to prevent falls?

several days

Is increasing the weekly exercise time associated with increased health benefits?



specific substance found in food that performs one/> physiological/ biochemical functions in the body


sum total of processes involved in the intake and utilization of substances by living organisms, including digestion, ingestion, absorption, transport, and metabolism of nutrients in food

What are the six classes of nutrients?

CHO (macro), lipids (macro), proteins (macro), vitamins (micro), minerals (micro), water

What are the major functions of nutrients in food?

promote growth and development, provide energy, regulate metabolism

Do we eat right as a nation?

no, more than what we need, and less of what we need more

Recommended healthy eating diets

mediterranean diet, Harvard Healthy Eatin gDiet Plan, DASH diet

What is sports nutrition?

application of nutritional principles to enhance sports performance ultimately promoting good health, adaptations to training, quicker recovery, and optimal performance

Are athletes receiving adequate nutrtion?

no, inadequate amounts of energy from CHO, too much fat than recommended, some are more likely to experience vitamin and mineral malnutrition


undernutrition/ overnutrition