A&P Chapter 1

Gross anatomy

Structures that can be examined without a microscope


studied area by area


studied system by system


external form and relation to deeper structures as x-ray in anatomic imaging


microscopic study of cells


microscopic study of tissues

Anatomical anomaly

physical characteristics that differ from the normal pattern

Cell physiology

examines the processes occurring in cells

Systemic Physiology

functions of an organ system


focuses on the nervous system

Cardiovascular Physiology

examines the functions of the heart and blood vessels

Structural Organization of the Human Body

Chemical level, Cell level, Tissue level, Organ level, Organ system level, and Organism level

Chemical Level

interaction of atoms

Cell level

structural and functional unit of living organisms

Tissue level

groups of similar cells and materials

Organ level

one or more tissues functioning together

Organ system level

groups of organs functioning together

Organism level

Any living thing

Integumentary System

Provides protection, regulates temperature, prevents water loss, and helps produce vitamin D. Consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands.

Skeletal System

Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.

Muscular System

Produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.

Lymphatic System

Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and absorbs fats from the digestive tract. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.

Respiratory System

Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and air and regulates blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.

Digestive System

Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes. Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.

Nervous System

A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiological processes, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.

Endocrine System

A major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions. Consists of glands, such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones.

Cardiovascular System

Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

Urinary System

Removes waste products from blood pH, ion balance, and maintains water balance within bodyConsists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine

Female Reproductive System

Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual function and behaviors. Consists of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.

Male Reproductive System

Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviorsConsists of the testes, accessory organs, ducts, and penis.

characteristics of life

organization, metabolism, responsiveness, growth, development, reproduction


The body works as a whole


All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism


Adapting to or changing to the environment


increase in size and/or number of cells


changes in an organism over time


The development of the tissue and organ shape


Development from general to specific


new cells or new organisms


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

Set point

the ideal normal value of a variable

Negative feedback

Counteracts a change in a variable to help maintain homeostasis

Positive feedback

When a deviation occurs the response is to make the deviation greater

Superior (Cephalic)

Towards the head, or above another structure. Example: The adrenal glands are superior to the kidneys

Inferior (Caudal)

Lower on the body, farther from the head


Toward the midline of the body


Away from the midline of the body


Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk


farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk


near the surface


Away from the body surface; more internal

Anterior (Ventral)

toward the front

Posterior (dorsal)

toward the back

Planes through the body

sagittal, frontal (coronal), transverse (horizontal), oblique


divides body into left and right


A saggitall plane down the midline of the body

Frontal (Coronal)

Divides the body into anterior and posterior sections


divides the body into superior and inferior parts


Any plane other than at a right angle

Planes through an organ

longitudinal, transverse (cross), oblique


cut along the length of an organ

Transverse (cross)

cut at right angle to length of the organ

Prone Postion

lying face down

Supine position

lying face up

Anatomical position

Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward\


The study of body structure


The study of body function


study of disease


study of

Serous membranes

Line body cavities that lack openings to the outside


pertaining to the wall of a cavity


pertaining to the internal organs


pertaining to the peritoneum; lining of the abdominal cavity


pertaining to behind the peritoneum