Chapter 4 Political Geography

cultural borders

boundaries based on cultural traits such as language or religion.

Geometric Border

boundaries based on latitude and longitude

sovereign nations

are governments that have complete authority over a geographic area. They can make and enforce laws, collect taxes, have militaries, and make treaties.

Foreign Policy

is a nation's plan for how to act toward other nations.

Diplomacy

is the foreign policy work nations do to keep friendly relations with each other.

democracies

Limited governments of the world include ____________.

totalitarian

Unlimited governments of the world include _____________governments.

Modern Democratic Governments

Today most democracies are representative democracies, in which people vote for representatives to make and enforce laws.•Presidential and parliamentary democracies are the two most common types.-Presidential: the people elect the head of state-Parliamentary: the legislative branch elects the head of state•Governments distribute powers in different ways:-unitary states: a central government has all the power-confederations: states or regions hold most of the power-federal: power is divided between the central government and its states

Presidential

the people elect the head of state

Parliamentary

the legislative branch elects the head of state

unitary states

a central government has all the power

confederations

states or regions hold most of the power

federal

power is divided between the central government and its states.

Limited Governments

•Govern by rule of law•Balance the welfare of individuals with the common good•Many have social welfare policies.•Protect citizens' rights and freedoms•Can withstand national crises

Mexico's Government

•Federal government•Three branches: legislative, executive, judicial•The legislative branch has two houses.•Three-fifths of legislators in each house are elected.•The people elect the president.•Voting is compulsory.

Brazil's Government

•Federal government•Three branches: legislative, executive, judicial•The legislative branch has two houses.•All legislative members are elected.•The people elect the president.•Voting is compulsory.

Unlimited Governments

has no limits set on a ruler's power.•Citizens have limited political and economic freedoms.•Citizens' rights are often not recognized or protected.•Citizens may not be able to take part in government.•Rulers often use force to put down opposition.•Rulers and governments are not subject to law.

Totalitarian governments

control all aspects of society—the government, economy, and people's beliefs and actions.

China's Government

•Mao Zedong created an authoritarian Communist system in 1949.•Tens of millions of deaths by widespread food shortages occurred by 1961.•Mao's Cultural Revolution began in 1966 to rid China of its pre-Communist customs and beliefs.•Deng Xiaoping slowly introduced economic and political reforms.•China's leaders today balance authoritarian rule, economic growth, and slow political reform.•China limits its citizens' rights and freedoms.

Autocracy

or rule by one person

Oligarchy

or rule by a few people

Democracy

or rule by many people.