biologly vocab test one

hydrogen bonds

Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule

peptide bonds

The bonds connecting amino acids together to form polypeptide chains.

polypeptides

a polymer of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.

monomer

a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer.

polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

hydrolysis

Breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water

solution

A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.

solute

A substance that is dissolved in a solution.

solvent

A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

inorganic compounds

A compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.

organic compounds

Compounds that contain carbon

carbohydrates

Broken down to glucose to provide energy.

monosaccharide

A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.

disaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides

polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides

starch

A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.

glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

cellulose

A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms

chitin

A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.

glycolipids

a lipid with one or more covalently attached carbohydrates

glycoproteins

Membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins.