Registered Medical Assistant

Ia-

Condition of

Poly-

Many

Dips-

Thirst

Osis-

Condition of

Iso-

Equal

Cyt-

Cells

Ist-

Specialist in

Orth-

Straightening

Dont-

Teeth

Ic-

Pertaining to

Micro-

Small

Scop-

Instrument for looking

Tachy-

Fast

Card-

Heart

Above

Supra-, Super-, Epi-, Ultra-, Hyper-

Against

Anti-,Contra-

Around

Peri-

Before

Pre-, Pro-, Ante-

Behind

Retro-, Dors/o, Poster/o

Below

Infra-, Sub-, Hypo-

Between

Inter-

Inside

Endo-

Middle

Mid-

Near

Para-

Outside

Exo-, Ecto-, Extra-

Side

Later/o

Through

Dia-, Per-

Within

Intra-

1/10

Deci-

1/100

Centi-

1/1000

Milli-

1000

Kilo-

First

Primi-, Proto-

Four

Quadr-

Half

Semi-, Hemi-

None

Nulli-

One

Uni-, Mono-

Two

Diplo-, Bi-

Three

Tri-

After

Post-

Bad

Mal-

Beyond

Meta-

Both

Ambi-, Amphi-

Different

Hetero-

Difficult or Poor

Dys-

Double

Ambi-, Amphi-

Easy

Eu-

Equal

Iso-

False

Pseudo-

Fast

Tachy-

Large

Macro-

Many

Multi-, Poly-

Same

Homo-

Slow

Brady-

Small

Micro-

Unequal

Aniso-

Without

A-, An-

Blood

-emia

Bursting forth

-rrhexis

Cell

-cyte

Condition

-osis, -ia, -ism

To crush

-tripsy

To cut into

-tomy

Cutting Instrument

-tome

Destroy

-lysis

Disease of

-pathy

Drooping

-ptosis

Enlargement

-megaly

Fear

-Phobia

Flow or discharge

-rrhea

Formation

-genesis

Hardening

-sclerosis

Herniation

-cele

Infection

-itis

Infestation

-iasis

Instrument to examine

-scope

Instrument to measure

-meter

Instrument to record data

-graph

Involuntary movement

-spasm

Kill

-cide

Lack of

-penia

Live birth

-para

Madness

-mania

Make a new opening

-ostomy

Measurement

-metry

Narrowing

-stenosis

Nutrition/development

-trophy

One who

-er

Pain

-algia, -dynia

Pertaining to

-ic, -al, -otic, -ac, -ar, -ous

Picture

-gram

pregnancy

-gravida

Process of

-y

Recording of data

-graphy

To remove or cut out

-ectomy

Resembling

-oid

Seizure

-lepsy

Softening

-malacia

Specialist

-ist

Staying in one place

-stasis

Stone

-lith

Stretching

-ectasia

Study of

-logy

Surgical fixation

-pexy

Surgical puncture

-centesis

To surgically repair

-plasty

Swelling

-edema

Treatment

-therapy

Tumor

-oma

Vomiting

-emesis

Washing

-clysis

Small Part of small intestine

duoden/o

Second Part of small intestine

jejun/o

Third part of small intestine

ile/o

Esophagus

esophag/o

Gall Bladder

cholecyst/o

Gums

gingiv/o

intestine

enter/o

Large Intestine

col/o

Lips

cheil/o

Liver

hepat/o

Mouth

stomat/o

Pyloric Valve

pylor/o

Rectum

proct/o, rect/o

Sigmoid Colon

sigmoid/o

Stomach

gastr/o

Teeth

dent/o, dont/o

Throat

pharyng/o

Toungue

gloss/o, lingu/o

Bladder

cyst/o

Kidney

nephr/o, ren/o

Opening

meat/o

Renal Pelvis

pyel/o

Stone

lith/o

Sugar

gluc/o, glyc/o

Ureter

ureter/o

Urethra

urethr/o

Urine

ur/o

Birth

nat/o

Breast

mast/o, mamm/o

Fallopian Tube

salping/o

Foreskin

phim/o

Menstruation

men/o

Milk

lact/o

Navel

oomphal/o

Ovary

oophor/o

Penis

pen/o, balan/o

Prostate

prostate/o

Testicle

orchid/o, orchi/o

uterus

hyster/o, uter/o

Vagina

colp/o

Black

melan/o

Blue

cyan/o

Green

chlor/o

Purple

purpur/o

Red

erythr/o

White

leuk/o

Yellow

xanth/o

Ankle

tars/o

Back

lumb/o

Bone marrow

myel/o

Bone

oste/o

Bursa

burs/o

Cartilage

chrondr/o

Extremities

acr/o

Fingers and Toes

phalang/o

Foot

pod/o, ped/o

Hand

chir/o

Joint

arthr/o

Movement

kinesi/o

Muscle

my/o

Neck

cervic/o

Ribs

cost/o

Spine

rachi/o, spondyl/o

Sternum

stern/o

Straight

orth/o

Synovial

synov/o

Tendon

tend/o, tendin/o

Wrist

carp/o

Abdomen

lapar/o

Beginning/formation

arche/o, gen/o

Body

corp/o

Breathing

pne/o

Cancer

carcin/o

Child

pedi/a

Death

thanat/o

Dead

necr/o

Disease

path/o

Fixed

ankyl/o

Heat

pyr/o, therm/o

Opening

meat/o

Pus

py/o

Rod-shaped bacteria

bacill/o

Round bacteria

cocc/o

Swallowing

phag/o

Think

gnos/o

Tumor

Onc/o

Water

Hydr/o

Women

gynec/o

Brain

encephal/o

Cerebrum

cerebr/o

Cornea

kerat/o

Covering on brain

mening/o

Ear drum

myring/o, tympan/o

Ear

ot/o

Eye

opthalm/o

Eyelid

blephar/o

Head

cephal/o

Hearing

phon/o

Iris

irid/o

Nerve

neur/o

Pupil

core/o

Smell

osm/o

Speech

phas/o

Spinal Cord

myel/o

Taste

gust/o, geus/o

Tears

lacrim/o

Vision

op/o

White of eye

scler/o

Fat

lip/o

Fungus

myc/o

Gland

aden/o

Hair

trich/o, pil/o

Nail

onych/o

Porridge-like

ather/o

Skin

dermat/o, cutan/o

Sweat

hidr/o

Artery

arteri/o

Blood

hem/o, hemat/o

Branch/forked

furc/o

Bronchus

bronchi/o

Chest

thorac/o

Clot

thromb/o

Diaphragm

phren/o

Heart

cardi/o

Larynx

laryng/o

Lung

pneumon/o, pulmon/o

Nose

rhin/o, nas/o

Trachea

trache/o

Vein

phleb/o, ven/o

Vessel

vas/o, angi/o

Cardiologist

Specializes in cardiac diseases

Dermatologist

Specializes in skin diseases

Endocrinologist

Specializes in glandular disease

Epidemiologist

Specializes in tracking cause of disease

Gastroenterologist

Specializes in treatment of the stomach and intestine

Gastrologist

Specializes in treatment of the stomach

Gerontologist

Specializes in treatment of the elderly

Gynecologist

Specializes in treatment of women's reproduction

Hematologist

Specializes in blood diseases

Hospitalist

Specializes in treating people when hospitalized

Immunologist

Specializes in immunity and immune disorders

Nephrologist

Specializes in kidney diseases

Neurologist

Specializes in treatment of nervous system

Obstetrician

Specializes in pregnancy and delivery of babies

Oncologist

Specializes in treating cancer

Ophthalmologist

Specializes in treating eye disease

Orthopedist

Specializes in bones and joints

Otolaryngologist

Specializes in ears and throat diseases

Pathologist

Specializes in tissue diseases

Pediatrician

Specializes in care of children

Perinatologist

Specializes in disease occurring in anus and rectum

Psychiatrist

Specializes in mental disorders

Pulmonologist

Specializes in lung diseases

Radiologist

Specializes in radiography and interpreting X-rays

Rheumatologist

Specializes in arthritis and joint disease

Urologist

Specializes in urinary and male reproductive disease

Accommodation

Adjustment

Alopecia

Loss of hair

Anesthesia

Without sensation

Anorexia

Without appetite

Anxiety

Nervousness

Asthma

Breathing disorder

Callus

Hard, thickened skin

Cartilage

Connective tissue

Cataract

Vision disorder

Cesarean

Abdominal surgery for birth

Chlamydia

A type of sexually transmitted disease

Cholesterol

A steroid widely distributed in the tissue of animals

Circumcision

Removal of foreskin

Diabetes Mellitus

Endocrine disorder

Diaphragm

Membrane to facilitate breathing

Diarrhea

Loose, watery stool

Distal

Farther away from point of insertion

Emphysema

Chronic lung disease

Enema

Bowel infusion

Enuresis

Bed wetting

Feces

Stool

Feminine

Having the qualities of a woman

Flatus

Gas

Glaucoma

Eye disease

Goiter

Enlarged thyroid

Gonorrhea

A type of sexually transmitted disease

Hemorrhage

Excessive bleeding

Hemorrhoid

Swollen rectal vein

Incision

Cut into body

Inflammation

Swelling and redness

Larynx

Voice box

Menstruation

Female monthly discharge

Migraine

Severe headache

Mucus

Noun meaning thick wet secretion

Myasthenia

Muscle disease with flaccid muscles

Influenza

Viral respiratory disease

Palpation

Touching and pressing patient

Palpitation

Irregular heartbeat

Pancreas

Endocrine and digestive organ

Paralysis

Inability to move

Paraplegia

Inability to move legs

Pneumonia

Severe respiratory disease

Procedure

Medical Activity

Prostate

Male reproductive organ

Prostrate

Lying face down without movement

Pruritis

Itching

Quadriplegia

Inability to move arms or legs

Sagittal

Plane running through body to divide into left and right

Scarring

Thickening of skin tissue

Supination

Lying on back

Suppuration

Healing

Mucous

Adjective that describes secretion

Mucus

Noun meaning thick wet secretion

Syphilis

A type of sexually transmitted disease

Testicle

Male gonad

Tongue

Muscle in mouth used for taste and speech

Trachea

Windpipe

Unconscious

Not awake and alert

Uterus

Female reproductive organ

Viral

Pathogen

Virile

Sexual

Vomiting

Emesis

ac

Before eating

Ad lib

As desired

B.I.D

Twice a day

g

Grams

gr

Grains

mcg

Micrograms

mL or ml

Milliliters

p.o.

By mouth

pc

after eating

prn

As needed

Q.I.D.

Four times a day

STAT

Immediately

T or Tbs

Tablespoon

t or tsp

teaspoon

T.I.D.

Three times a day

Ca

Calcium

Fe

Iron

H20

Water

K

Potassium

Na

Sodium

NS

Normal Saline

ADD

Attention Deficit Disorder

ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

AIDS

Auto Immune Deficiency Syndrome

ALS

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease)

ARDS

Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ASHD

Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease

BP

Blood Pressure

BPH

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

CA

Cancer

CAD

Coronary Artery Disease

CHF

Congestive Heart Failure

COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

CVA

Cerebral Vascular Accident

DM

Diabetes Mellitus

GC

Gonnorrhea

GERD

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

HTN

Hypertension

IBS

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

IDDM

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

MI

Myocardial Infarction

MR

Mental Retardation

MS

Multiple Sclerosis

MVP

Mitral Valve Prolapse

NIDDM

Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

PAT

Paroxysmal Arterial Tachycardia

PID

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

PUD

Peptic Ulcer Disease

RA

Rheumatoid Arthritis

RDS

Respiratory Distress Syndrome

SOB

Shortness of Breath

STD

Sexually Transmitted Disease

TAH

Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

TIA

Transient Ischemic Attack

TURP

Transurethal Resection of Prostate

URI

Upper Respiratory Infection

VD

Venereal Disease

VSD

Ventricular Septal Defect

ABG

Arterial Blood Gas

BS

Blood Sugar

CABG

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

CBC

Complete Blood Count

CK

Creatinine Kinase

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CT/CAT Scan

Computed Tomography Diagnostic Prodedure

D&C

Dilation and Curettage

EKG/ECG

Electrocardiogram

ESR

Sedimentation Rate

ESWL

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

FBS

Fasting Blood Sugar

FHT

Fetal Heart Stones

HCT

Hematocrit

Hct/hgb

Hematocrit and Hemoglobin

Hgb A1c

Glycosylated Hemoglobin

I&D

Incision and Drainage

IVP

Intravenous Pyelogram

KUB

X ray of kidney, ureter, and bladder

LP

Lumbar Puncture

MRI

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

PE

Physical Exam

PT

Protime

PTT

Partial Thromboplastin Time

ROM

Range of motion

T&A

Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy

VS

Vital Signs

WNL

Within Normal Limits

Bx

Biopsy

CNS

Central Nervous System

CSF

Cerebral Spinal Fluid

Dx

Diagnosis

EDC

Estimated Date of confinement

ENT

Ear, Nose, and Throat

FUO

Fever of undetermined origin

GI

Gastrointestinal

HEENT

Head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat

I&O

Intake and Output

IM

Intramuscular

IV

Intravenous

LMP

First day of last menstrual period

LOC

Level of Consciousness

N&V

Nausea and Vomitting

NKA

No known allergies

Obstetrics

Obstetrics and Gynecology

OT

Occupational Therapy

OTC

Over The Counter

PERRLA

Pupils equal round reactive to light and accomodation

PT

Physical Therapy

Px

Physical

Rx

Prescription

subQ or subC

Subcutaneously (The Joint Commission no longer approves SQ or SC)

Sx

Symptoms

Tx

Treatment

VS

Vital Signs

Musculoskeletal System Function

To Support, shape, and movement

Nervous and Sensory System Functions

Translate Input and make decisions

Circulatory and Cardiovascular System Functions

Transportation of oxygen, hormones, and nutrients

Endocrine System Functions

Turn functions on and off

Reproductive System Functions

Continuation of species, human sexual function

Integumentary System Functions

Protection of internal organs

Lymphatic System Functions

Protection from infection

Digestive System Functions

Intake and absorption of nutrients

Respiratory System Functions

Intake of oxygen and output of waste

Excretory System Functions

Output of waste

How many body systems does the human body have?

The human body is made up of 10 body systems, each has a specific function

What is the smallest unit of the body?

The cell, which can only be seen under a microscope

What are cells made of?

Organelles

What are tissues made up of?

Tissues are made of cells

What are organs made of?

Each organ is made of various tissues

What is a cell membrane?

A covering that covers each cell

Do all cells look the same?

No, each cell has its own individual shape

What is cytoplasm?

A colloidal filling that fills each cell

What is the nucleus of a cell?

It is where genetic material resides and where proteins are made

What are ribosomes?

Proteins of a cell which are responsible for the growth and development of a cell

What is the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell?

A folded membrane, which regulates what goes in and out of the cell

What are mitochondria?

Produces energy for the cell

What is pinocytosis?

Cell drinking

What is phagocytosis?

Cell eating

What is the Golgi Apparatus?

Another membrane of the cell which is used for transportation throughout the cell

What are Cilia?

These are hair-like appendages which wave back and fourth pushing along secretions or particles.

What are Flagella?

Are tail-like appendages which whip through fluids, to help the cell move. Such as a sperm

Where does reproduction take place in a cell?

Through the centrioles

What happens during Mitosis?

The centriole separates and each part goes to a separate end of the cell. Spindle fibers form between the two centriole pieces and chromosomes activate to either end of the cell. The cell eventually divides into two identical daughter cells

Epithelial tissue Function

Covers and lines

Connective tissue Function

Joins together

Muscle tissue Function

Contracts

Nervous tissue Function

Carries electric potential

Four types of Connective Tissue

Hard: Found in boneLiquid: Found in bloodFibrous: Found in tendonSoft: Found in areolar tissue

Three types of Muscle Tissue

Cardiac: Found in heartSmooth: Found in vessels and organsSkeletal: Found in voluntary muscles

What is a neoplasm or tumor?

An aberrant tissue growth

When is a neoplasm or tumor considered benign?

If the tissue does not spread beyond its original site

When is a neoplasm or tumor considered malignant?

When the abnormal tissue growth spreads to other areas of the body, the neoplasm is considered malignant

What is Carcinoma?

Malignant epithelial tissue

What is Sarcoma?

Malignant connective tissue

How can cancer be detected?

Through various tests such as; MRI, CT Scan, PSA (Prostatic Specific Antigen), Biopsy, or Cell Studies (Pap Smear)

How can cancer be treated?

Through Chemotherapy, Radiation, Surgery, or Immunotherapy

What is the aim when treating cancer?

To destroy he aberrant cell growth

What are the seven warning signs of cancer?

1. A lump or mass2. Change in mole3. Chronic cough or hoarseness4. Persistant indigestion5. Unexplained bleeding6. Sore that does not heal7. Change in bowl or bladder habbits

Superior

Above

Inferior

Below

Ventral/Anterior

Belly Side

Example of Ventral/Anterior

The breasts and knees are on the ventral/belly side of the body

Dorsal/Posterior

Back Side

Example of Dorsal/Posterior

The buttocks and knuckles are on the dorsal/posterior side of the body

Distal

Greatest distance away from point of insertion

Proximal

Closest to a point of insertion

Lateral

Away from the midline

Example of Lateral

The ears are lateral to the nose

Medial

Toward the midline

Example of Medial

The nose is medial to the ears

What is the integumentary system?

It comprises of the skin and body coverings, such as hair and nails

What are the functions of the integumentary system?

1. Provision of a protective barrier from foreign invaders2. Regulation of body temperature3. Reception of information through pressure points4. Linings for body cavities and organs

What is the outer layer of skin called?

The epidermis

What is the middle layer of skin called?

The dermis

What is the innermost layer of skin called?

The hypodermis

What are the two sub layers of the epidermis?

The stratum corneum (horny layer) and the stratum germinativum (growing layer)

What do the dermal and subcutaneous layers contain?

Accessory structures

What do Sebaceous Glands produce?

They produce the sebum which moisturizes our skin and scalp

What do the Sudoriferous Glands produce?

They produce perspiration to help regulate body temperature

What do Ceruminous Glands produce?

Found in the lining of the ear which produce cerumen (earwax) which provides the ear canal with lubrication and cleaning

What does blue skin indicate?

Cyanosis: A lack of oxygen or profusion of the cells

What does red skin indicate?

Erythema: Fever, blush, burn, or infection

What does white skin indicate?

Pale: Anemia

What does orange skin indicate?

Cirrhosis: Liver or pancreatic disorder

What does gray skin indicate?

Ashen: Serious illness, death

What does purple skin indicate?

Ecchymosis: Bruising or deep tissue injury

What does yellow skin indicate?

Jaundice: Bile problems involving liver, gallbladder, or pancreas

Papule

Small elevation such as a wart

Macule

Flat such as a freckle

Vesicle

Papule with clear liquid, such as a blister or chicken pox

Pustule

Papule with pus, such as a pimple or a boil

Nevus

Brown elevation, such as a mole

Nodule

Lump under the skin, such as a sebaceous cyst

Decubitus

An ulceration, such as a pressure sore

Avulsion

Is tissue torn out, such as a dog bite

Excoriation

Is tissue rubbed off, such as a scrape or rubbing of two skin surfaces

Laceration

A cut with clean edges, such as a knife cut

Fissure

Is torn by use at a site of pressure, such as a rectal fissure

Tear

Ragged edges, such as skin shearing from friction

Puncture

A small surface area, but a deep wound, such as a stab wound

Dermatitis

Inflamed, irritated skin

Eczema

Erythema, scaling, and itching due to allergic reaction

Psoriasis

Overgrowth of epidermis resulting in silvery scales

Verruca (wart)

Benign, fleshy tumor caused by a virus

Herpes Simplex

Viral Lesion with water vesicles; Type 1: nose and mouth, Type 2: genitalia

Tinea Pedis (Athletes Foot)

Fungus flourishes in warm, moist, dark places; causes scaling, itching, and burning to feet and between toes

Tinea Cruritis

Fungus that flourishes in groin and other skin folds; causes burning and redness

Tinia Corporis (ringworm)

Red lesions in a circular pattern blanched in the center caused by fungus, NOT a worm

Impetigo

Golden crusts on oozing lesions, bacterial, spread through direct contact or with personal items like towels or bed clothing

Furuncle (Boil)

Staph infections in hairy area of body such as groin, neck, or armpit; common in diabetics or those with impaired immunity; needs systemic antibiotic

Carbuncle

Group of furuncles

Basal cell carcinoma

Shiny pearl-like lesion due to overexposure to sun

Squamous cell carcinoma

Reddened patch of skin that will not heal due to overexposure to sun

Melanoma

Large, asymmetrical, dark, malignant mole that swiftly spreads through the body and can be terminal

1st degree burn

Redness, such as a sunburn

2nd degree burn

Blisters and redness

3rd degree burn

Full thickness damage through skin into nerves and muscles

What is the purpose of the musculoskeletal system?

To provide support to and enable movement of the body

What do bones serve as?

They serve as a storehouse for calcium and the are also the site for manufacturing red blood cells.

What is another function of bones?

They protect soft organs

How many parts are there to the skeletal system?

Two parts, the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton

What makes up the axial skeleton?

The skull, spinal column, shoulders, and hips.

What makes up the appendicular skeleton?

Our arms and legs

How are bones joined together?

With ligaments at joints

Are injuries to ligaments and tendons ( strains and sprains ) quick to heal?

No, they are slow and very painful

What is cancellous or spongy bone?

A lighter weight bone composed of a meshwork filled with red marrow

Where is cancellous or spongy bone found?

It is often found in the end (epiphysis) of long bones, where red blood cells are made.

What is the shaft (diaphysis) of a long bone made of?

Compact bone and is filled with yellow marrow.

What is the entire bone covered in?

A thick protective covering called periosteum

How do nerves and blood vessels run through the bone?

They weave into the diaphysis through holes (foramen) and run along grooves called fossa

Open/Compound fracture

Breaks through the skin, will be high risk for osteomyelitis, a severe bone infection

Closed/Simple fracture

Bone is broken but does not break the skin

Greenstick fracture

Splinters, bends, or cracks

Impacted/Compacted fracture

One piece of bone jammed into another

Spiral fracture

Bone twisted with a tortuous break

Comminuted fracture

Bone breaks into multiple pieces

Pathological fracture

Caused by disease process

What makes up more than 40% of the body's weight

650 muscles

What do muscles require for movement?

They require glucose and oxygen to make energy (ATP)

How is glucose stored?

It is stored in the body as glycogen and oxygen is stored as myoglobin

What is skeletal muscle?

It is a striated (banded) tissue that is composed of two proteins

What is actin?

A protein in skeletal muscle that is thin and light

What is myosin?

A protein in skeletal muscle that is dark and heavy

How do we maintain body temperature?

With muscle movement

Osteoporosis

Decreased bone mass that often occurs in middle-aged women

How do you treat Osteoporosis?

Hormone replacement therapy, increased calcium, weight bearing exercise, weight loss

Scoliosis

Deviation of spine to side

How is Scoliosis treated?

Brace, surgery

Lordosis

Excessive curvature of lumbar spine (swayback)

How is Lordosis treated?

Surgery may be used

Kyphosis

Excessive curvature of thoracic spine (hunchback)

How is Kyphosis treated?

Bracing

Osteoarthritis

Wear and tear on joints causing pain, stiffness, and swelling

How is Osteoarthritis treated?

Medical treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs, assistive devices, exercise, joint replacement

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Stiffness, swelling, and pain in joint due to autoimmune disorder

How is Rheumatoid Arthritis treated?

With medical treatment and drug therapy, as well as acupuncture

Bursitis

Swelling of the fluid sac cushioning joint

How is Bursitis treated?

By avoiding pressure on the joint, medication, and aspiration

Gout

A collection of uric acid crystals in joint causing pain and swelling

How is Gout treated?

With a low-purine diet, and Allopurinol

Muscular Dystrophy

Poorly developed muscles, it can be hereditary

Torticollis (wry neck)

Spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

How is Torticollis treated?

With heat, antispasmodic drugs, and physical therapy

Atrophy

Wasting of muscle

How is Atrophy treated?

Exercise or range of motion exercises

Cleft Palate

Congenital deformity in roof of mouth due to failure of maxillary bones to fuse

How is Cleft Palate treated?

Through Surgery

What two parts is the nervous system divided into?

The peripheral and central nervous system

What makes up the central nervous system?

The brain and spinal cord

What part is the central nervous system divided into?

The autonomic nervous system

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

It provides a rapid response to a threat where we may need to be able to run or defend ourselves.

What is the autonomic made up of?

It is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

What does the sympathetic nervous system do?

It is responcible for a release of glucose from the liver, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, and decreased genitourinary action

What does the sympathetic nervous system help humans do?

it helps humans to a flight or fight response during a dangerous situation.

What does the parasympathetic nervous system do?

It creates a reverse response of the sympathetic nervous system to help slow the body down

What is the brain?

It is the command center of the body. It receives information from the world, processes it, and then sends out a response.

What is the brain composed of?

It is composed of two hemispheres of convoluted tissue.

What does the right hemisphere of the brain control?

The left side of the body

What does the left side of the hemisphere control?

The right side of the body

How are the two brain hemispheres joined together?

By tissue called the corpus callosum

What are the four main parts of the brain?

The cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon

What does the cerebrum control?

It controls thinking and emotion

What are the four lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe

What does the frontal lobe control?

Emotions and personality

What does the parietal lobe control?

Math and logic

What does the temporal lobe control?

Processes spoken words

What does the occipital lobe control?

Processing visual information

What is the cerebellum responsible for?

It is responsible for balance and movement

What is the brainstem made up of?

The pons and medulla oblongata, which are responsible for basic life functions such as respiration, heartbeat, and blood pressure

Are injuries to the medulla oblongata or pons recoverable?

No, injuries to these areas are fatal

What does the diencephalon contain?

Structures responcible for alertness (reticular formation), body temperature (hypothalamus), long term memory (hippocampus), and survival/animal brain (limbic system)

How does the brain communicate with the rest of the nervous system?

Through the spinal cord

What are the brain and spinal cord covered in?

Three layers of tissue called the meninges

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges, which are membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

What are symptoms of Meningitis?

Nuchal rigidity, fever, headache, vomiting

Hemiplegia

Is the result of a stroke

What are symptoms of Hemiplegia?

Paralysis on one side of the body

Paraplegia

Is the result of severing of spinal cord in lower back or sacrum

What are symptoms of Paraplegia?

Inability to move legs, may have bowel and bladder dysfunction

Quadriplegia

Result of severing of spinal cord in the upper thoracic cavity or cervical area

What are symptoms of Quadriplegia?

Inability to move arms and legs, may have respiratory dysfunction

Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke)

Blockage of a vessel or bleeding into brain, which prevents oxygen getting to brain tissue

What are symptoms of Cerebral Vascular Accident?

Malfunction in the portion of the brain that is deprived of oxygen

Herniated Disc

Protrusion of nucleus pulposis against spinal cord

What are symptoms of a Herniated Disc

Pain that radiates down leg

What is the peripheral nervous system?

It involves the nerves that pick up information from the environment and causes a response.

How to impulses from the environment travel to the brain?

Via nervous tissue to the spinal cord and on to the brain

What is a reflex arc?

The nerve pathways followed by an impulse during a reflex

Where do nerve impulses go?

They are picked up by dendrites and pass through the cell body (soma) and out the tail of the neuron (axon)

Do neurons touch one another?

No, they do not touch

What is a synapse?

The junction between neurons via neurotransmitters

When do nerve impulses pass more rapidly?

As learning takes place

Multiple Sclerosis

A nerve impulse cannot quickly pass along the axon because the coating on the axon (neurilema) is patchy

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Deterioration of motor neurons

Poliomyelitis

Viral infection that leads to weakened muscles

Transient Ischemic Attack

Brief interludes of confusion that often precede CVA

Hydrocephalus

Enlargement of head due to accumulated fluid in ventricles of brain

Expressive Aphasia

Inability to form words

Receptive Aphasia

Inability to understand what is being said

Epilepsy

Abnormal electrical activity of brain

Cerebral Palsy

Damage to brain that causes motor or balance problems

Intracerebral Hematoma

Accumulation of blood within the brain tissue due to trauma to head or spontaneous rupture of blood vessel

Subdural Hematoma

Accumulation of blood due to tear in meningeal layer

Concussion

Headache, vomiting, damage to brain tissue due to closed head trauma

Alzheimer's Disease

Progressive degeneration thought to be due to plaque and tangles of brain tissue leading to regression of ability to think

Parkinson's

Progressive neurological disease with resulting tremors, shuffling gait, and rigidity

Multi-infarct Dementia

Brain damage from chronic ischemia

Encephalitis

Inflammation of brain caused by virus, bacteria, or toxin

Bell's Palsy

Temporary facial paralysis caused by virus damaging the VII cranial nerve (facial)

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Severe spasm of V cranial nerve (trigeminal)

What system is the sensory system a part of?

It is part of the nervous system and comprises of touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste

Olfactory Nerve: I

Carries impulses for smell

Optic Nerve: II

Carries impulse for sight

Oculomotor Nerve: III

Controls eye movement

Trochlear Nerve: IV

Controls eye movement

Trigeminal Nerve: V

Carries sensation from eye, upper and lower jaw; movement of jaw

Abducens Nerve: VI

Controls facial expression, controls salivary and tear glands, carries taste

Facial Nerve: VII

Carries taste, controls facial expression

Vestibulocochlear Nerve: VIII

Carries hearing and controls equilibrium

Glossopharyngeal Nerve: IX

Carries taste, controls swallowing and gag

Vagus Nerve: X

Controls voice box, throat, and digestive juices; longest nerve; goes to abdominal cavity

Spinal Accessory Nerve: XI

Controls muscles in neck and larynx

Hypoglossal Nerve: XII

Controls muscles of tongue

What is the eye?

It is an orb covered with tough white tissue called sclera

What is the cornea?

Located in front of the orb, a clear window in the sclera allows light to enter the eye

How does light travel through the eye?

It travels through the cornea and through a lens, which focuses light on the Fovea Centralis

What are rods in the eye?

These are specialized receptors that are receptive to night, shades of gray, and peripheral vision

What are cones in the eye?

These are specialized receptors that are stimulated by color and daylight.

When is corrective lenses needed?

When an irregularly shaped lens will cause light to focus elsewhere and result in the need for corrective lenses.

PERRLA

Is a notation made when the pupils of the eye are equal in size, round, and either eye responds to light being shined in it

What is the iris of the eye?

Is the colored portion of the eye that dilates or constricts the pupil in response to light.

Myopia

Nearsighted; cannot see objects in the distance

Hyperopia

Farsighted; cannot see up close

Presbyopia

Old Eye", lens loses elasticity

Astigmatism

Irregular curvature of lens

Cataracts

Cloudy lens

Conjunctivitis

Redness and itching of conjunctiva; "pink eye

Glaucoma

Accumulation of fluid pressure and poor drainage of aqueous humor

Macular Degeneration

Abnormal blood vessel growth causing loss of central vision

Strabismus

Crossed eyes" unable to focus independently of one another

Nystagmus

Repetitive and involuntary movement of eye

Blepharitis

Eyelid and eyelash infection

Diplopia

Double vision

Ambylopia

Lazy eye causing other eye to lose some portions of visions

Chalazion

Small, painless, localized swelling of eyelid

Hordeolum

Purulent staph infection of hair follicle of eyelid

Enucleation

Removal of eye

Keratitis

Inflammation of cornea

Nyctalopia

Inability to see at night

Pterygium

Triangular thickening of conjunctiva

What is hearing?

It is a result of sound in the form of vibration of air

What does the outer ear (pinna) do?

It catches sound waves and directs them down the ear canal toward the tympanic membrane (ear drum)

Where does sound go after the tympanic membrane?

The vibration of the eardrum is passed on to the three bones of the middle ear (the ossicles)

What are the three bones of the ossicles?

The incus (anvil), malleus (hammer), and stapes (stirrup)

What does the cochlea do?

Small receptors called organ of corti are stimulated by the disturbance of vibration

What does the Cochlear nerve do?

It is triggered to send an impulse to the brain to be interpreted as sound

How may hearing be interrupted?

By obstructions such as impacted ear wax or defective parts such as otosclerosis

What is conduction deafness?

It is interference with the passage of sound waves or vibrations.

What is sensineural deafness?

It is deafness caused by the cochlear nerve or failure of the brain to properly interpret sounds

Otitis Media

Middle ear infection, often caused by URI

Otitis Externa

Outer ear infection, "swimmers ear", caused by exposure to pathogens

Impacted Cerumen

Buildup of earwax until auditory canal is occuluded

Otosclerosis

Build of spongy bone and stiffening of stapes

Presbycusis

Decrease in hearing receptors due to aging or abuse

Meniere's Disease

Vertigo, dizziness, and hearing loss related to inner ear

Tinnitus

Buzzing or ringing in ear/ears

What is asnomia

No sense of smell because of severe chemical trauma by caustic fumes or blockage of receptor cells by a thick coating of mucus.

Smell and taste combine to make what?

Flavors

Gustatory Sensation (taste)

Is limited to sour, salty, sweet, and bitter

Where are the receptors for sweet located on the tongue?

They are located at the tip

What are arteries, capillaries, and veins all called?

They are called vessels

What are three major products that must be delivered through the circulatory system?

Hormones, nutrients, and oxygen

What are arteries?

These are thick and elastic, and they also carry blood away from the heart and are buried deep in the body's tissue

What are veins?

These are fragile and are very superficially located, these return blood to the heart.

Where do veins and arteries join together?

At capillaries, which are only one cell thick

What happens in the capillary beds?

Tissue perfusion takes place here

What is the principle of osmosis?

That substances move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

How is blood pumped through the circulatory system?

By the contractions of a double pump

What is the atria?

The upper chambers of the heart (left atrium and right atrium).

What are the two lower chambers of the heart?

The left and right ventricles

How is deoxygenated blood returned to the right side of the heart?

By the two largest veins of the body, the inferior and superior vena cava

What is the blood flow of the heart?

Deoxygenated blood is returned by the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood that collects in the right atrium travels through the tricuspid valve and fills the right ventricle. The blood then goes through the pulmonary valve and out the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Oxygen is picked up in the lungs in the alveoli. The blood then carries the oxygen back to the heart through the pulmonary vein and into the left atrium. After going through the bicuspid valve, the blood fills the left ventricle. The blood is finally squeezed through the aortic valve and out the aorta towards all portions of the body.

Where is the myocardium thickest?

Around the left ventricle, because it must push the oxygenated blood round the entire body

What are contractions of the heart triggered by?

An electrical stimulation in the heart muscle

Where does the electric impulse in the heart begin?

It begins in the sinoatrial node (SA node) or the pacemaker

What does the impulse then do in the heart?

It spreads out through the heart, and is slowed down in the atrioventricular node (VA node)

What does the Bundle of His do?

It separates the impulse of the heart so it can travel down the septum of the heart via either the right or left bundle branches.

What does the Purkinje fibers do?

It carries the impulse of the heart into the myocardium where it causes the myocardium to contract, this is the stimulation for the ventricles to contract

What is the carotid artery?

Arterial branches from the aorta take blood to the head

What is the subclavian artery?

Takes blood to the arms

What is the coronary artery?

Takes blood to the heart

Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack)

Ischemia (lack of blood) to area of heart causes tissue death

How is Myocardial Infarction treated?

With a bypass graft around blockage or angioplasty with stent to keep coronary arteries open

Coronary Artery Disease

Multiple areas with start of vessel disease (narrowing and strictures)

How is Coronary Artery Disease treated?

Stop smoking, increase excersice, low fat, high fiber diet

Angina

Ischemia during stress or exercise, unstable angina during rest

How is Angina treated?

Nitroglycerin, stop activity, stop smoking

Arrhythmia

Irregular heartbeat

How is Arrhythmia treated?

Medication, surgery, pacemaker, cardioversion

Hypercholesterolemia

Total cholesterol greater than 200 mg

How is Hypercholesterolemia treated?

Diet and medication

Hypertension

Blood pressure elevated greater than 140/90

How is Hypertension treated?

DASH diet, exercise, diet, medication, weight loss, stress reduction

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Narrowing or occlusion of vessels in legs and feet

How is Peripheral Vascular Disease treated?

Bypass graft or medication

Thrombus

Blood clot

How is Thrombus treated?

Prevent clot from moving until dissolved

Thrombophlebitis

Blood clot and inflammation of veins

How is Thrombophlebitis treated?

Heparin, antibiotics, blood thinners, exercise, avoid immobility or constriction of veins

Arteriosclerosis

Calcium and fibrous deposits inside vessels

How is Arteriosclerosis treated?

Change to low fat, high-fiber diet and increase exercise

Murmurs

Valvular disorder

How are Murmurs treated?

Valve replacement in serious cases

Congestive Heart Failure

Weak ventricle (either side); allows blood to back up. Left side= SOB, frothy sputum, coughing; Right side= edema and cyanosis

How is Congestive Heart Failure treated?

Medication (Lasix and Lanoxin)

Aneurysm

Bulging weak spot in vessel

How is an Aneurysm treated?

With a graft that is inserted into an area and sutured above and below a weak point

What is blood composed of?

55 percent plasma and 45 percent formed elements (corpuscles)

What is Plasma composed of?

Plasma is made of 90 percent water, protein such as hormones, antibodies, and clotting factors and nutrients such as fats, glucose, vitamins, and minerals

What are formed elements composed of?

Red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), or platelets (thrombocytes)

What is the shape of an Erythrocyte?

They are disc- like without a nucleus

How many Erythrocytes are there in blood?

There are 4-5 million erythrocytes per cubic centimeter of blood.

How long do Erythrocytes live?

They live for 120 days and carry oxygen as well as the blood type protein.

True or false: Leukocytes outnumber red blood cells

False, Leukocytes are outnumbered by red blood cells 700 to 1 and usually live 6 to 24 hours.

What is the function of Leukocytes?

They fight invaders and protect against infection

How are leukocytes identified?

Through staining as granulocytes or agranulocytes

What does staining the granulocytes do?

The lab can identify the white blood cell as neutrophil, eosinophil, or basophil.

What are thrombocytes?

They are part of the clotting process and they have no nucleus.

How long do thrombocytes live?

They only live up to 10 days

What do thrombocytes do?

They are part of the chain of events to prevent blood loss when a vessel is injured.

When does Hemostasis begin?

It begins with the release of thromboplastin by the injured tissue, followed by conversion to prothrombin and thrombin.

What does thrombin convert to in the presence of calcium?

It converts into insoluble fibrin and eventually into a clot

Thrombocytopenia

A decreased number of platelets

What are the symptoms of Thrombocytopenia?

Bruising, easy bleeding

Leukemia

Unrestrained growth in white blood cells

What are the symptoms of Leukemia?

Pale, weak, low-grade fever, malaise, weight loss

Anemia

Not enough red blood cells

What are the symptoms of Anemia?

Shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, pale

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Not enough heme for oxygen to bind to on red blood cells

What are the symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia?

Shortness of breath, fatigue, weakness, pale

Pernicious Anemia

Lack of intrinsic factor in gastric juice

What are the symptoms of Pernicious Anemia?

Mental Changes, weak, stiff extremities

Sickle cell anemia

Abnormal hemoglobin; red blood cell changes into sickle cell shape and gets tangled up, causing blockage and pain

What are the symptoms of Sickle cell anemia?

Pain and welling in joints of African American children

Polycythemia Vera

Red blood cell count is elevated because of living in high altitude or genetics.

What are the symptoms of Polycythemia Vera?

Phlebotomy is done at regular intervals

How many types are there in the ABO group?

There are four groups

What does Type A blood have?

It has A antigens on the red blood cells and anti-B antibodies in plasma

What does Type B blood have?

It has B antigens on it the red blood cells and anti-A antibodies in plasma

What does Type AB blood have?

It has A and B antigens on the red blood cells and no antibodies in plasma

What does Type O blood have?

It has no antigens on the red blood cells and both A and B antibodies in plasma

Which blood type is the universal recipient?

Blood type AB

Which blood type is the universal donor?

Blood type O

What is the primary function of the lymph system?

Is to protect the body from foreign invaders.

What are lymph vessels?

Paired with veins, the lymph vessels contract with skeletal muscle movement.

What do lymph vessels do?

They help collect excess tissue fluid

What are the four accessory organs of the lymph system?

The lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, and spleen

What do the lymph nodes do?

They trap bacteria and foreign bodies and destroy them

Where are the two main lymph nodes located?

Under the armpits and in the inguinal area

When doing their job what may a lymph node do?

Become enlarged and tender (lymphadenopathy)

What are the three sets of tonsils?

The palatine tonsils, the nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), and lingual tonsils (back of tongue)

What do the three sets of tonsils do?

They assist with the development of speech and are a protective barrier against infection

Where is the thymus located?

It lies under the sternum and is the source of immunity in the first two years of life.

What odes the thymus do after two years of age?

It secretes thymosin to mature T-lymphocytes that fight invaders.

What happens to the thymus gland as one ages?

It shrinks as a person gets older

Where is the spleen located?

It is located in the left hypochondriac area and completes many duties

What does the spleen do?

It filters bacteria out of the blood, produces phagocytes to fight off foreign invaders.

When does Splenomegaly occur?

It occurs in syphilis, scarlet fever, typhoid, and typhus fever

What is the purpose of the Respiratory System?

It serves to convey oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide

What are the major organs of the respiratory system?

The trachea, bronchi, and the lungs

What are the two phases of the Respiratory System?

Inspiration and Exhalation

What does movement of the diaphragm do?

It changes the air pressure of in the thoracic cavity and allows air to rush into the lung via the trachea.

What does the trachea consist of?

C-shaped rings of cartilage

What does the trachea lead to?

It bifurcates into the two bronchi leading to the lungs

How many lobes do the lungs have?

The right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes

How does air travel through the lungs?

Via the bronchi and bronchioles, and terminates in the balloon like alveoli

What happens in the Alveoli?

Oxygen molecules move into the bloodstream and are returned to the left side of the heart

How does carbon dioxide leave the blood stream?

It crosses though the capillary and alveoli membranes, and begins the pathway up the respiratory tract to be exhaled

Sinusitis

Infection of the epithelial tissue of sinus cavities

Epistaxis

Nose bleed

Coryza

Nasal discharge, rhinorrhea

Influenza

Inflammation of trachea, aches, pains, coughing, fever

Pneumonia

Air spaces filled with fluid due to viral, bacterial, chemical, or aspiration irritation

Tuberculosis

Caused by mycobacterium bacilli, night sweats, cough with bloody sputum

Atelectasis

Incomplete expansion of lung due to injury, mucous plug, cancer, or foreign body

Asthma

Spasm of bronchus and bronchioles due to allergy

Hay fever

Watery eyes, sneezing, runny nose

URI (Upper respiratory infection)

Viral or bacterial infection of eyes, ears, nose, and throat; coughing, sneezing, and sore throat

Pneumothorax

Collapse of lung due to nonpatent lung (bleb) or trauma

Hemothorax

Collapse of a lung due to pressure from bleeding or trauma

Lung Cancer

Ten times more likely with smoking, 15% 5-year survival rate

What does the Endocrine system do?

Endocrine glands secretes chemicals (hormones) that deliver messages through the bloodstream to distant tissue

What do hormones do?

They deliver messages to tissues that directs them to respond or perform. And the Endocrine gland monitors the response to determine whether additional stimulus is needed

Where is the Anterior Pituitary?

The base of the brain

What hormone does the Anterior Pituitary produce?

Growth Hormone (GH)

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates growth of egg in ovary or sperm in testes

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Regulates skin pigment

Leutinizing Hormone (LH)

Stimulates ovulation

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Stimulates thyroid to produce thyroxine

Prolactin Hormone

Stimulates production of breast milk

Where is the Posterior Pituitary located?

Base of brain

What hormone does the Posterior Pituitary produce?

ADH

What does ADH do?

Facilitates reabsorption of water in nephron of kidney

Oxytocin

Stimulates milk ejection and uterine contraction

Where is the Pineal Gland located?

Center of brain

What hormone does the Pineal Gland produce?

Melatonin

What does Melatonin do?

Controls sleep/wake cycles

Where is the Thymus gland located?

Behind the sternum

What hormone does the Thymus gland produce?

Thymosine

What does Thymosine do?

Facilitates immunity by stimulating the growth of T-cells

Where is the Thyroid gland located?

The neck

What hormone does the Thyroid gland produce?

Thyroxine

What does Thyroxine do?

It stimulates metabolism

Where is the Pancreas gland located?

The abdomen

What hormone does the Pancreas gland produce?

Insulin

What does Insulin do?

Assists sugar to go from bloodstream into tissue

Where are Adrenal Glands located?

Top of the kidney

What hormone do the Adrenal Glands produce?

Aldosterone

What does Aldosterone?

Regulates sodium and potassium

Cortisol hormone

Regulates fat metabolism and blood pressure

Where are the Ovaries/Testes glands located?

Lower abdomen/scrotum

What hormone do the Ovarie/Testes glands produce?

Estrogen/testosterone

Where are the Kidney glands located?

Lower back

What hormone does the Kidney glands produce?

Erythropoietin

What does the Erythropoietin hormone do?

Monitors blood for oxygen level

Where are the Parathyroids glands located?

Imbedded in thyroid

What hormone does the Parathyroids gland produce?

Parathyroid hormone

What does the Parathyroid hormone do?

Facilitates calcium into bloodstream

How many teeth does the adult have?

32 permanent teeth

What is the flow of the digestive system?

Food is ingested into the mouth where it is broken down by the teeth and tongue. Mixed with the salivary enzyme amylase, starch digestion begins. Leaving the mouth, the bolus of food moves into the pharynx where reflex swallowing (deglutition) forces it into the esophagus. In the esophagus food moves by peristalsis to the entry of the stomach, the cardiac sphincter.

What is hiatal hernia?

When the cardiac sphincter allows stomach tissue to slide through the esophagus

What is GastroEsophagul Reflux Disease

When the cardiac sphincter is not patent and digestive enzymes leak back up into the esophagus.

What happens in the stomach?

Gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsin to break down connective tissue in food. The stomach stores food and releases it in small amounts as a substance called Chyme.

What happens in the small intestine?

Chyme passes into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter. Almost all digestion and absorption of food occurs in the small intestine.

What happens in the first third of the small intestine (duodenum)?

The chime is neutralized by alkaline secretions from the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Bile from the gallbladder begins the breakdown of fats.

What happens in the second parts of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum)?

Absorption of nutrients occurs through the villi of the small intestine. Amino acids (digested proteins), simple sugars, and some fat componets are absorbed directly into the blood capillaries located in the villi.

What are the main functions of the liver?

Storage of sugar as glycogen, Formation of blood plasma proteins, Formation of urea from the metabolism of proteins, Modification of fats to promote their usefulness in the body, Detoxification of harmful substances such as alchohol and certain drugs, Storage of some vitamins and irons

What does the Large Intestine do?

It reabsorbs water and stores and compacts waste.

What is defecation?

Elimination of solid waste

What is feces?

Another word for feces

What is flatulence?

Gaseous waste that is expelled through the rectum

What is eructation?

Gas that escapes through the mouth

Cirrhosis of Liver

Chronic scarring of the liver

Hemorrhoids

Engorged and enlarged rectal veins due to increased intra-abdominal pressure

Constipation

Hard, dry stools that are hard to pass

Diarrhea

Loose, watery stools

Peptic Ulcer

Erosion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum due to smoking, NSAIDS, alcohol, aspirin, or helicobacter pylori

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Bowel is overly sensitive to stress; pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and rectal bleeding

Leukoplakia

Thickened white patches in the mouth

Cholelithiasis

Stones formed from the substances in bile that have potential to block common bile duct and cause pain

Hepatitis A, B, and C

Inflammation of the liver that may be life threatening

What is Hepatitis A caused by?

Fecal food contamination

What is Hepatitis B and C caused by?

Blood and body secretions

Pyloric Stenosis

Hardened, narrow lumen of the pyloric sphincter prohibits food from entering small intestine; symptoms include projectile vomiting, poor feeding, and weight loss

Gingivitis

Inflamed, bleeding pink tissue

What does the Urinary System do?

It eliminates metabolic waste from the body, maintains appropriate levels of water; regulates the acid base balance (pH), blood pressure, and red blood cell production

Which systems assist the Urinary System?

Systems that have excretory functions such as the digestive, respiratory, and integumentary systems

What organs make up the Urinary System?

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and the urethra

Are the organs for the Urinary System different with gender?

No, they are the same for both males and females

How is urine formed?

It is formed by millions of nephrons located in the kidneys

What does the nephron have?

A portion shaped like a 'C' (called the Bowman's Capsule) where the water and waste is filtered from the blood

Flow of urine

Molecules small enough to pass through the glomerulus and the cells of the Bowman's capsule leave the blood and enters the renal tubule. Before its elimination as urine, the glomerular filtrate must be concentrated or too much water would be lost, resulting in dehydration. The pituitary hormone ADH causes proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and loop of Henle to become more permeable so that more water is reabsorbed. The ureters drain the urine from the kidneys to the holding area-the bladder. The urethra carries the urine to the urinary meatus for excretion.

How much filtrate do the kidneys process each day?

Up to 180 liters of filtrate each day to create about 1 to 1 1/2 of urine.

How is Urination (micturition, voiding) controlled?

By an involuntary internal sphincter muscle and a voluntary external urethral sphincter

What gender is more affected by Urinary tract infections (UTIs)?

It affects women 10 times more than men. Because the urethra is approximately three inches long for women and eight inches for men.

Glomerulonephritis

May result from an inadquatly treated strep infection and presents with abnormal constituents in urine such as albumin (albuminuria), pus (pyuria), glucose (glycosuria), or blood (hematuria)

What are kidney stones?

They are formed from excess calcium or oxylates. They may cause painful blockage in the ureters

What is the process of destroying kidney stones called?

Lithotripsy

What is Hypospadius?

When the penis has an additional opening

What kind of cells does human reproduction require?

The sperm and the egg

Where do sperm develop?

They develop within the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

What influence does Testosterone hormone have on a man?

It influences sperm cell development and secondary sex characteristics such as; lower voice, male hair patterns, and broader shoulders than hips

How does sperm travel out of the body?

Through a series of ducts which includes the epididymis, ductus deferens (vas deferens), ejaculatory duct, and urethra.

What does sperm travel in?

Sperm travels in semen, which is composed of secretions from seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands

What else does semen do for sperm?

It nourishes the sperm, neutralizes the acidity encountered in male urethra and female vagina, lastly it serves as a lubricant to the reproductive tract during sexual intercourse.

Why should a man be circumcised?

It reduces the risk of human papilloma virus and phimosis (overly tight skin)

Cryptorchidism

Undescended testicles which may cause sterility unless it is corrected by school age.

At what ages is Testicular cancer most common in men?

Ages 15-25

How is Testicular cancer detected?

Through a testicular self exam

True or False: Removing one testicle will cause fertility

False, surgery to remove one testicle does not significantly affect fertility

At what ages is Prostate cancer most prevalent in men?

Ages 50 and older

How is Prostate cancer detected?

Through a digital rectal examination or PSA exam

What does the female produce in the ovary?

The ovary forms an egg

What happens each month with the ovum?

Under the effects of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), at least one ovum matures within the follicle of the ovary

What happens when the ovum has mature?

The matured egg will travel down the fallopian tube

Where does fertilization most often take place in the fallopian tube?

In the outer third of the fallopian tube

What is the egg called before it is fertilized?

A zygote

What does the estrogen produced by the cells of the follicles membranes wall cause?

It causes the endometrium of the uterus to begin preparation for pregnancy

What does the conversion of the ovarian follicle into the corpus luteum cause?

It produces a large amount of progesterone for 11-12 weeks

What will the fertilized egg do under the influence of progesterone?

It will implant in the uterus

When are identical twins formed?

When one fertilized egg divides into two identical eggs

When are fraternal twins formed?

When a woman ovulates two eggs that are fertilized

True or false: Identical twins can be of different sex?

False, they are always the same sex

Preeclampsia

When a pregnant women develops hypertension and spilling of proteins. Can lead to seizures (eclampsia)

Placenta Previa

Is bleeding that occurs as the cervix dilates because the placenta is implanted low near the cervix

Abruptio Placenta

Is the sudden violent separation of the placenta that places both the fetus and mother at risk for complication from hemorrhage

How long does the menstrual cycle last for a woman?

It varies from woman to woman, but will usually last 28 days

How is cancer of the cervix detected?

Through a PAP smear done annually on sexually active women

What are the seven types of nutrients?

Fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, water, and fiber

What is the recommended diet for the body?

65 percent carbohydrates (pastas, bread, grains, fruit, vegetables, and dairy products.) 25 percent fats (found in meats and grains or polyunsaturated or monounsaturated oils) and 15 percent protein (meats, fish, and eggs)

How are vitamins categorized?

As either water soluble or fat soluble

Where is Vitamin A found?

in orange and yellow vegetables and fruits such as yams, apricots, and carrots.

What is Vitamin K for?

It is for clotting

When do newborns receive vitamin K?

They receive a vitamin K shot shortly after birth

Where is Vitamin D found?

It is found in dairy products

Where is Vitamin E found?

In vegetable oils, nuts, leafy green vegetables, and fortified cereal

Which vitamins are fat soluble and have the potential to be toxic?

Vitamins A, K, D, and E

Which vitamins are water soluble?

Vitamins B and C

Why is Vitamin C important?

It is important to the skin and the immune system

Where is Vitamin C found?

In citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and grapefruit

When does Vitamin B6 deficiency occur?

It occurs secondary to alcoholism and manifests with neurological symptoms

When does Vitamin B12 deficiency occur?

When there is a lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach

When are Vitamin B12 shots administered?

They may be given monthly when the diagnosis of pernicious anemia is made

Minerals are necessary for what?

As part of the body's chemistry

Why is potassium important?

It's essential for muscle contractions

What can happen when you do not have enough potassium?

May result in cardiac problems or death

Why is calcium important to the body?

It is needed to create strong bones and teeth as well as muscle contractions

Why is iron important to the body?

It is a precursor to the red blood cell's ability to carry oxygen

What does fluoride do?

It prevents cavities or dental decay

Potassium can be found in which foods?

Oranges, bananas, broccoli, potatoes, tomatoes

Calcium can be found in what food or liquids?

Milk, sardine and salmon bones, fortified orange juice or bread

Iron can be found in what food or liquids?

Red meat, liver, raisins, tomato juice, dried fruit

Fluoride can be found in what?

Fluoridated water, toothpaste

Iodine can be found in what?

Seafood and iodized salt

What is the DASH diet used for ?

Lower blood pressure

What does the DASH diet contain?

Fresh fruits and vegetables, no alcohol, low salt, high fiber

What is the BRAT diet used for?

Control diarrhea

What does the BRAT diet contain?

Bananas, rice, applesauce, and tea

What is the Soft Diet used for?

Decrease strain on GI tract

What does the Soft Diet contain?

No fresh or raw fruits and vegetables, no strong spices or gas forming vegetables

What is the Bland Diet used for?

Decrease GI irritation

What does the Bland Diet contain?

No caffeine, no alcohol, no pepper, no chili, no nutmeg, no fried foods, no concentrated sweets

What is the Low Salt diet used for?

Decrease blood pressure or water retention

What does the Low Salt diet contain?

Avoid processed foods ( canned and frozen ); no added table salt; no cured meats like ham, bacon, or sausage; minimal dairy products; avoid pickled items; avoid salty snacks

The Low Fat diet is used for?

Heart health

What does the Low Fat diet contain?

Avoid saturated fats, pastries, icings, butter, and whole milk products, fatty cuts of meat, and remove poultry skins

What is the Low Cholesterol diet used for?

Heart health

What does the Low Cholesterol diet contain?

Avoid egg yolk, shrimp, organ meats, coconut and palm oils, and lard; Increase foods that elevate HDL (avocados, nuts, legumes, canola oils)

What does the antioxidant diet contain?

Eat dark and yellow vegetables, green tea, red wine, oregano, sesame, rosemary, thyme, and cloves

What is the antoxidant diet used for?

Prevent cancer

What is the Vegan diet used for?

Lifestyle

What does the Vegan diet contain?

No animal products, all nutrients from plant sources

What is the Lacto-vegeitarian used for?

Lifestyle

What does the Lacto-vegitarian diet contain?

Plant sources of nutrition supplemented with dairy products

What is the Lacto-ovo vegitarian diet used for?

Lifestyle

What does the Lacto-ovo vegitarian diet contain?

Plant sources of nutrition supplemented by dairy products and eggs

What is metabolism?

The production of energy from food

Calorie intake requirements are dependent on what?

Health status, age, activity level, and gender

Woman reccomended calorie intake range

1,600-1,800 calories per day

Men reccomended calorie intake range

1,800-2,000 per day

Internal body temp is related to what?

Metabolism

Communication

Is defined as the sending and receiving of messages

Four parts of communication

Sender, message, reciever, and feedback

Sender

Begins the exchange by forming and conveying a clear thought or piece of information. The sender transformers the information into speech or actions (symbols), which are organized according to syntax and grammar

Message

Which is the information being sent

Receiver

Who takes in the message

Feedback

Responce of the receiver verifying the exchange of information

Noise

Is anything that gets in the way of effective communication

Therapeutic communication

Occurs when patients who have particular needs or conerns seek your help to resolve or alliviate their problem

What does therapeutic communication require

Be open to others, be respectful of cultural and ethnic diversity, be a good listner, be aware of your own biases, and be truly interested in helping others

5 C's of therapeutic communication

Complete, Concise, Concrete, Clear, and Considerate

Empathy

Means you are in touch with and aware of the feelings your patient is experiencing.

Reflective communication

In this type of communication, you are not only listening to the patient, but you are observing their nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, gestures, and body language