Ch.1 Sec.2 the Nature of Science Vocabulary


a body of knowledge based on the study of nature


testable explanation of a situation

Scientific Inquiry

The diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.

Peer Review

A process by which the procedures and results of an experiment are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.


assumption based on prior experience


orderly, direct information gathering about a natural phenomenon

Scientific Methods

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.


procedure performed in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis and collect precise data


a factor that remains fixed during an experiment while the independent and dependent variables change

Control Group

in a controlled experiment, the group not receiving the factor being tested

Dependent Variable

factor being measured in a controlled experiment; its value changes because of changes to the independent variable

Experimental Group

in a controlled experiment, the group receiving the factor being tested

Independent Variable

The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

Scientific Theory

A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results.

Scientific Law

It describes relationships under certain conditions in nature.