- observation 🕵️♀️- construction of a testable hypothesis - experimental design 🔬- gathering, recording, and analysis of data 📊- evaluation of results 📄- conclusions ✔️
What happens if several of experiments don't confirm the hypothesis?
Then you should form a revised hypothesis when necessary
Why do scientist discuss theories rather than facts?
Refinement of ideas is normal
What do null hypothesis show?
It shows that there will no significantly statistical effect as a result of the experiment treatment
When is the null hypothesis rejected?
if there is evidence for an effect, UNLIKELY DUE TO CHANCE
What is a negative result? And what happens?
Failure to find an effect, it is still a valid finding, as long as the experiment is well designed it can carried out again by someone else
What can be done about conflicting data or results?
They can be resolved through careful evaluation or can lead to further experimentation
When can scientific ideas be accepted?
Once they have been checked independently and effects must be reproducible
What does reproducible mean?
Reliable in order to carry out the experiment again
What happens with one-off (single) results?
They must be treated with caution
Why is it important to publish methods, data, analysis, and conclusions in scientific reports?
So that others are able to repeat the experiment
What are methods of sharing scientific findings?
Seminars, talks, posters, conferences, publishing in academic journals
What do most scientific publications use?
How does peer review work?
Specialists with expertise in the relevant field assess the scientific quality of a submitted manuscript and make recommendations regarding its suitability for publication
What do review articles summarise?
Hey summarise current knowledge and recent findings in a particular field
How can scientific publications have integrity and be honest?
- unbiased presentation of results- citing, referencing and providing references- avoiding plagiarism
Why must experiments be replicated?
To reduce the opportunity for dishonesty or the deliberate misuse of science
What are the three R's to keep in mind in animal studies?
- Replacement 🔀 = the use of animals avoided and replaced with alternatives as often as possible - Reduction ⏬ = the number of animals used in the study should be reduced as much as possible - Refinement 〰 = for those animals being used the harm should be minimised
What should be taken into account in human studies?
- informed consent- the right to withdraw - confidentiality
When can trials not be carried out?
The value or quality of a study must be justified in terms of benefits of its outcome, if the outcome if not beneficial then it can't be done as it would risk the safety of subject species, the individuals, the investigators and the environment
Why are many areas of scientific research regulated by the government?
Because of the risk involved
What can influence scientific research?
Legislation, regulation, policy and funding limits the potential for the misuse of data
What is an alternative hypothesis?
It is usually paired with a null hypothesis which does suggest an effect
What is a hypothesis?
It usually involves a prediction of the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable
How can we gather and record data?
By measuring the dependent variable
How can we analyse data?
- looking for trends in data - if data is quantitate, you should calculate
How can we evaluate results and conclusions?
Results should be analysed so that the relevant conclusion can be drawn and relate back to the aim/hypothesis
What to keep In mind in the scientific cycle?
- the cycle is not about keeping an open mind, experimenting randomly and having no idea of what the results will be - you can start at any point of the cycle, data, hypothesis or experiment- experiments MUST be reported in a way that allows others to reproduce the results- the cycle is endless... all scientific data is constantly refined and improved