Bio 206 homework #1


This is the study of normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes.

intracellular fluid

The technical term for the internal compartment of a cell is the_____

extracellular fluid

The technical term for the external compartment of a cell is the ______


A field of biology that studies HOW the body maintains homeostasis


The study of body functions in a disease state is known as _______.

Mechanistic approach

This kind of explanation of a physiological process focuses on "how" it occurs or describes the step-by-step mechanism by which it occurs.

Teleological approach

This kind of approach to physiology focuses on "why" a feature of the body exists by examining its adaptive significance, advantage, or benefit

Mechanistic approach

If you explained blood flow as resulting from rhythmic contractions of the heart's ventricles that create pressure waves in blood vessels, which approach to physiology would you be taking?

Teleological approach

If you explained the existence of blood flow as an ideal way to distribute oxygen and nutrients to body cells and remove wastes, which approach to physiology would you be taking?


This is the ability to keep one's internal environment relatively stable, despite an ever-changing external environment.

Law of mass balance

The ________ states that if the amount of a substance in the body is to remain constant, any gain must be offset by an equal loss. Input must = output


When the molecular composition of two body compartments or cellular compartments is identical, then those compartments are said to be in a state of __________.


Sometimes the concentration of molecules or ions is very different in one compartment relative to an adjacent one. For example, sodium is much more concentrated outside cells relative to inside. This situation represents a state of ___________.

Set point

The optimal value or range of values for a physiological parameter or variable (e.g., blood pressure, body temperatures, etc.) is also called what?


This is a logical guess about how events will take place in an experiment.

Independent variable

This is a factor in an experiment that the scientist actually manipulates. It is also shown on the X axis in graphs.

Dependent variable

This is a factor in an experiment that is observed or measured. The Y axis in graphs

Control group

This part of an experiment is included so that the scientist can be confident that any observed changes were due to the experimental manipulation, and not some outside factor.


The term refers to when experiments are repeated to verify their results are accurate.

scientific theory

when the same conclusion has been made by many scientists across many disciplines over many years, a widely-accepted explanation or _____may emerge for a particular phenomenon.


Scientists can better understand a complex topic by re-analyzing the data from many related studies and publishing that reassessment as a ____ of the data.

Nocebo effect

If subjects expect adverse consequences from participating in a experiment, they may be more likely to report negative side effects that don't actually exist. this complication in experimentation with humans is called the _____.

placebo effect

If subjects expect a positive outcome from participating in an experiment, they are more likely to report positive changes in their body that may not saccutally exist. this complication in experiments including humans is called the _____.


Experiments with humans and animals are difficult because participants typically show high levels of genetic and environmental _______. using a large number of participants can minimize this concern.

Structure/function map

A __________ (like the one dealing with sandwiches) is a kind of concept map that shows the relationship between different vocabulary terms, usually from general to specific in a top-to-bottom progression.

Process map

A __________ or flow-chart (like the one about a person working outside on a hot, dry day) is another kind of concept map that links events or structures in a cascade that occur in a specific temporal sequence.

Line graph

_____ graphs are best used when the independent variable is a continuous phenomenon, such as time (seconds, days, years)

Bar graph

A ____ graph is best used when the independent variable has distinct categories or levels that don't have an inherent order.

Bar graph

A ____ graph is best used when the independent variable has distinct categories or levels that don't have an inherent order.


A change of the set point (e.g.g an organism's surroundings) that causes the organism to react/response

sensory neurons

a receptor that detects a stimulus and reports a monitored physiological value to the control center

afferent pathway

Pathway of receptor (usually sensory neurons) to control center

Integrating center

control center that processes the sensory information from the sensor, "makes a decision," and directs the response

efferent pathway

Pathway of control center to effector (e.g. somatic neurons)


This is a physiological structure (such as a sweat gland or the diaphragm muscle) that has the ability to make a change in body condition.

Effector action

This is the term we will use for what a structure like a sweat gland or the diaphragm muscle actually DOES (like secretes sweat or contracts) to fix the problem.


This change typically brings the stimulus back towards its desirable range through a feedback loop. It is usually the opposite of the stimulus.

Positive feedback loop

In this kind of feedback or response loop, the regulated variable (e.g., uterine muscle contractions, production of breast milk) moves farther and farther away from its ideal set point. As such, some outside event needs to intervene to shut this kind of loop down and return the individual to homeostasis.

Negative feedback loop

This kind of feedback or response loop is the primary way that homeostasis is maintained in your body. The generated response either increases or decreases the stimulus back to its ideal set point.


These subatomic particles have a positive charge.


If you alter the number of ____ in an atom, you will create an atom that has either a positive or negative charge.


These subatomic particles have no charge.

Atomic number

The number of protons in an element will tell us its __________.

Atomic mass

The number of protons plus the number of neutrons is the element's _______.


An atom or molecule that has lost or gained an electron is called a(n) _______.


A(n) ____ describes an atom that has lost one or more electrons (e.g., Na+, Ca2+, or H+).


An atom that gains an electron is called a(n) _________.


Electrons are shared between atoms in this kind of chemical bond, which makes these bonds very strong. Enzymes or high heat are required to break these kinds of chemical bonds.

Free radical

When an atom has an unpaired electron, it is called a ____, which means it will be highly reactive and can be quite toxic to your cells.


In this type of bond, one atom loses an electron and the other gains one, and so these two atoms are held together by their +/- attraction. These bonds readily break when such molecules enter a watery environment, like inside your body fluids or cells.


_____ molecules (e.g., O2, CO2, fatty acids, etc.) have no charge asymmetry, and therefore do not dissolve in water.


_____ molecules (e.g., DNA, carbohydrates, proteins, etc.) all have a positively-charged side and a negatively-charged side (i.e., a charge asymmetry), and therefore readily dissolve in water, since that solvent also has a charge asymmetry.


A solution where water is the solvent is called a(n) _____ solution.


Water surface tension can be explained by the fairly weak ____ bonds that cause polar molecules to be attracted to each other.


This variable measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.


When considering pH, the lower the number, the more _____ the solution.


The amount of solute per unit volume of solution is a measurement of a solution's _________.


This general term describes a group of molecules, such as bicarbonate (HCO3-) or phosphate (HPO42-), that help to maintain pH by flexibly removing excess H+ ions from solution when they are in excess or by donating H+ ions to solution when their concentration is too low.