How do we communicate our emotional gaze?
by opening & closing our eyes
attentional gaze can be attracted ___ & gives advantage when attracted ___
attentional gaze can be attracted covertly & gives advantage when attracted earlier
studies of gaze allocation have found that viewers prefer to look at eyes of other people, dedicating ___-___% of fixations to this area of interest
Work by Yarbus (1965) demonstrated what about the difference in allocation when observers looked at face vs body
when observers looked at the face in isolation, they tended to look at eyes, whereas when observers could see the entire body, this preference diluted
the eyes are a useful source of info during ___ ___? Why?
social interactionreflects persons feelings, attitudes & goals for interaction. Also tells us internal state, dynamic, whose turn to speak
visually orient themselves towards ___ & ___?
sounds & faces
Social Gaze...In social situations infants visually orient themselves where at:4 weeks - 9 weeks - 3 months - 4 months -
4 weeks - seek eye contact during nursing9 weeks - will fixate more on an adults eyes when they are speaking to them3 months - respond to eye contact by smiling4 months - face recognition enhanced by eye contact
what activates the 'social brain' circuitry in infants at 4 months?
human face gazing directly at infant
when do children learn to use joint attention?e.g., "look a duck!
at 6 months old
initiating joint attention (following gaze) occurs slightly later & is where?
child gestures, points, uses sounds/words to draw attention to object
an example of social referencing is?
child will look at object & then back at you to share your enjoyment
Infants display joint attention by....2 months - 6 months -8 months - 9 months - 1 year - 12 - 14 months -
2 months - by taking turns exchanging looks, noises6 months - children look in same direction as others & follow gaze8 months - demonstrate pointing9 months - demonstrate gestures & social referencing1 year - point intentionally to share interest12 - 14 months - direct attention by pointing & looking back at you
difference between young children & adults in relation to gazing for social interaction
young children - understand something about gaze can be utilised to socially interact, communication, share experiencesadults - where we look in social interaction is crucial as we are communicating
In Boz & cos (2012) study on gaze patterns during social interaction, looking at what characteristics of conversation partners influence behaviour, what was the a. methodologyb. findings
a. participants were instructed to discuss any topic they wanted b. - mutual gaze correlated with combined agreeableness & familiarity - correlations between gaze, personality, familiarity occurred in pairs but not when alone- when 1 persons gaze is high, other persons is low
In Boz & co's (2012) study, they found peaople who are familiar with one another look more/less, why?
less - can use shortcuts and dont need cues to show listening as they already know
Boz & co (2012) concluded what from their study?
mutual gaze is an outcome of interaction
In Ho & co's (2015) study on how we manage conversation, what was...a. methodologyb. findings
a. participants asked to briefly introduce themselves to eachother to get them climitized to eye tracker, then play a game (heads up or 20 questions)b. averted gaze precedes talking (participant will look away first, start talking then direct attention to person)
Ho & co (2015) conclude what from their study?
a. speakers gaze towards ones listening partner can signal switch in rolesb. beginning with averted gaze could signal desire to maintain turn, letting partner know they have the floor, once turn-taker established, gazing back at partner likely serves monitoring function to checking for understanding
In Rogers & co (2018) study on dual eye tracking to uncover personal gaze patterns, they found participants are generally ___ in gaze allocation during conversations. This showed evidence of ___ & ___ preference?
stable in gaze allocationlocation & duration
In Rogers & cos (2018) study, they found when observing dual eyetracking___% of mutual face gaze ___% of mutual eye gaze
60% mutual face gaze0-45% mutual eye gaze
What conclusion did Rogers & co (2018) study make?
comfort zones determine distribution of eye gaze - personality, characteristics, anxiety, spatial & temporal precedence
in Dan Richardson & co's study on whether simple perceptual processing is influenced by knowledge that is done along or with another, what was the method?
- participants were in pairs to test eachother & were tasked to look at set of 4 images each containing 2 pleasant & 2 unpleasant images- before viewing images, participants were either told they would both be looking at same pictures OR your partner will be looking at symbols
What were the findings in Dan Richardson & co's study on joint perception?
when know partner is doing/viewing same thing as you, you both try & match in social context/emotional alignment but this ONLY occurs if believe person is seeing same thingthus, people behave differently based on alignment/interpretations
What were the 4 reasons/interpretations behind Dan Richardsons findings?
1. negativity bias (perceived threat/anxiety from social context)2. social context of joint perception increases some broad cognitive factor (alertness/evolutionary perspective)3. social interaction leads to emotional alignment (joint experience)4. alignment with salience (look to thing most important - visual or semantic properties)
In Richardson & co's study on gaze coordination during live dialogue, what did this study look at?
extent to which listeners eye movements matched up with both speakers eye movements & language of speaker & found link between coordinating visual attention & understanding spoken language
What was the method of Richardson & co's study of gaze coordination?
- participants partnered & tasked with engaged in live, spontaneous dialogue whilst looking at pics & cast
What findings did Richardson & co conclude?
common ground! - participants eye movements were coupled with conversers most likely to be looking at same thing at same time common ground of... knowledge, beliefs, assumptions shared
what did Richardson & co & Dan Richardson & co's study have in common
both found that participants eye movements were coupled in that the more familiar/similar partners are, the more they will try to match eachother
What did Richardson & Co's study say about coordination between pairs across time?
after playing several rounds, people became faster & their eye movements synchronise to point where actions approximate 1 coordinated system= 1 coordinated system common ground/learn eachothers way of describing things
Crosby & Monin (2008) ran a study of social referencing, where they argue minority group members have more influence over judgements of discriminations than majority due to personal experience.Were the findings of this study consistent with their argument?
Yes, eye movements revealed that viewers looked at bystander who may be offended (black dude)= when we think all 4 people could hear, will look at person who we think is associated with discriminating remark
Kuhn & Land (2006) proposed what about symbolic cuing
we follow where eyes are going to manipulate social information e.g., magic
what did Wiseman's (2012) study tell us about lie detection & neuro-linguistic programming?
typically we believe top LHS glances are lies, but this was not the case in the experiments. In fact, there were no noticeable differences between people lying & telling truth
overt, ballistic eye movements aimed at bringing target into foveal vision? Which can be guided internally or externally
in an external saccade experiments, participants would be required to?
look at a visual stimulus as soon as it appears
in an internal saccade experiments, participants would be required to?
saccades are executed in absence of visual stimulus
what are pursuit eye movements?
pursuit eye movements are used for tracking objects that move relatively slowly & smoothly, we use smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM)
smooth, non-ballistic eye movements matching velocity of gaze to velocity of target, which is used to keep target in foveal vision (tracking target from 1 side to other)
normal smooth pursuit
abnormal, saccadic pursuits are characterised by?
jerky, jagged eye movementstypically falling off and requiring "catch up" - reflecting disruption of pursuit cause failure of inhibiiton
how do we assess pursuit eye movements?
to assess the integrity of pursuit eye movements, the "gain" is measured (mean gaze velocity/target)
what are the "catch-up" targets called?
low gain scores indicate what when assessing pursuit eye movements?
low gain scores indicate difficulty matching gaze velocity to target velocity
Describe the 2 types of measures of performance
1. compensatory saccades - catch-up to target2. intrusive saccades - anticipatory saccades/pares of saccades that move away & then back
the pursuit system can be divided into what 2 phases?
initiation & maintenance
typically we measure fixations in a scene in terms of what 4 things?
we measure fixations in terms of LDSDLocationsDurationsSequences of fixationsDistance between fixations
diameter of pupils vary depending on
diameter of pupils vary depending on a. lightb. task-specific recruitment of cognitive-resourcese.g., arousal, anxiety, onset of stimulus
pupillary dilations are incredibly sensitive to ?
pupillary dilations are incredibly sensitive to... working memory load on tasks - in that, they increase with each increase in memory load
pupils not only dilate due to light & memory load, they also dilate to ?
expected stimuli being absent, which suggests dilations are active responses to stimuli
What does the visible sclera of the human eye help us to obtain?
Social information - we can see where the eye is directed, and also widening or narrowing of the eye.