Prostate Cancer

prostate cancer

-Gender (males)-Age: men older than 65, 1 in 8 men 70 y/o or older will be diagnosed-Genetics: Family history of the disease (BRCA 1&2)-Curable When diagnosed early, prostate cancer is curable. When the cancer is confined to the prostate at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate is 100%

Risk factors

-Genetics/family hx -Diets high in fat (limits in dairy products and processed meats)-Obesity -Exercise -Has vasectomy increases chance , free circulating testosterone watchful waiting

At high risk

Men older than 40 and African American


-Enlarged prostate -Having BPH (Abnormal growth of prostate tissue may be related to benign prostatic hyperplasia)-Metastasis pf cancer to bones -Nerve impingement (nerves may be affected, lower extremities, bowel dysfunction, bladder spasms) -Increased metabolic demands

Clinical Manifestations

-Dysuria -Increased or decreased urinary frequency -Hematuria-Fatigue/weakness-Weight loss-Reduction in urinary stream (because of pressure on urethra) -Monitor I & O/ nutritional status -Abnormal DRE findings


-Biopsy (for definitive diagnosis) -DRE finds prostate gland nodular and fixed -PSA (prostate specific antigens) screen and monitor treatment


-Surgery (prostatectomy) -Radiation (primary treatment, reduces risk of long-term problems of impotence and urinary incontinence) Can also be used palliative for pts w/metastatic prostate cancer Brachytherapy: interstitial implants of radioactive seeds of iodine, gold, palladium, or iridium-Hormone manipulation-Chemotherapy

Radical prostectomy

-Removal of the prostate, prostate capsule, seminal vesicles, and a portion of the bladder neck. Many patients experience varying degrees of urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.-They'll be in pain -keep distance from children and pregnant women An artificial urinary sphincter is surgically implanted, helps release urine

BPH VS Prostate cancer

BPH:-It is uniform, normal enlargement of prostate gland due to growing age/aging. This happens over many years-Doesn't spread and not life threatening -Treatment in form of tablets or sometimes widening of urethra Prostate cancer:-It is irregular & abnormal enlargement of prostate gland due to growing tumor present inside prostate. Happens over a few months -Spreads and destroys any organ like live, lung, bone and brain -Is life threatening -Treatment is in form of radiation therapy, surgery, and chemotherapy