What is the function of the pancreatic islet cells?
Alpha cells - produce glucagon to increase BG levelBeta cells - produce insulin to decrease BG level
What immune cells cause the destruction of beta cells in T1D
CD8+ T cells
Is proinsulin a precursor to insulin?
T2DM glucose lowering therapies
What are AGEs?
AGEs are advanced glycation end products which are the non-enzymatic modification of macromolecules.Excess AGE production is linked with increased diabetic complications
What is precision medicine?
As individual responses to T2DM treatments can differ, precision medicine utilises subgroups of individuals with unique features to treat T2DM more effectively
Blockage of the Na-dependent glucose transporter 2 promotes glucose excretion into urine
What are some of the functions of the gut microbiota?
1. Vitamin production2. Fermentation of non-digestable carbohydrates3. Production of SCFAs4. Activation of immunity5. Villi macrovascularistation
How does the gut microbiota control appetite?
- Increased fibre intake = Increased SCFA production = Increased acetate and leptin (via FFAR2)- Increased acetate and leptin = decreased appetite
Difference in gut microbiota function in obese individuals?
- Increased inflammation and oxidative stress- Decreased intestinal barrier integrity, therefore, leaky gut- Increased SCFA production- Increased lipogenesis- Increased insulin resistance
Gut microbiota and T2D
T2D- Increased oxidative stress and BCAAs- Decreased cell motility and vitamin production
WAT and BAT
WAT- Energy storage- Visceral- Subcutaneous- Secretes hormones and inflammatory factorsBAT- Heat generation- Highly vascularised, generates heat from FFA and glucose
Describe the function of leptin
What is the function of visfatin?
Insulin-mimetic action, decreasing BGL. Also anti-apoptotic in the endothelium and heart
Adipose tissue in obesity
1. Increased adipocytes and preadipocytes2. Increased inflammatory cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells
How does insulin resistance occur in obesity?
Increases FFA, triglyceride uptake and inflammatory cytokines leads to inhibition of insulin receptors