Perio Chp 1 and 2 Vocab


Functional system that surrounds the teeth and attaches them to the jawboneAKA- supporting tissues of teeth-attachment apparatus


the tissue that covers the cervical portions of the teeth and the alveolar processes of the jaws

periodontal ligament PDL

The fibers that surround the root of the tooth. These fibers attach to the bone of the socket on one side and to the cementum of the root on the other side.


the thin layer of mineralized tissue that covers the root of the tooth

Alveolar bone

the bone that surrounds the roots of the teeth. It forms the bony sockets that support and protect the roots of the teeth

Gingival Margin

the coronal boundary, or upper edge, of the gingiva

alveolar mucosa

The apical boundary or lower edge of the gingiva it can be distinguished easily from the gingiva by its dark red color and smooth shiny surface

free gingival groove

shallow linear depression that separates the free and attached gingiva

mucogingival junction

clinically visible boundary where the pink attached gingiva meets the red, shiny alveolar mucosa

Free Gingiva

the unattached portion of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth in the region of the CEJ

attached gingiva

continuous with the free gingiva and is the part of the gingiva that is tightly bound to the underlying cementum on the cervical third of the root and to the periosteum of the alveolar bone


The dimpled appearance, similar to an orange peel, that may be visible on the surface of the attached gingiva.

interdental gingiva

Portion of the gingiva that fills the interdental embrasures between two adjacent teeth apical to the contact area


Plural for papilla, where the Interdental gingiva consists of a facial and lingual papillae.

Gingival col

a valley-like depression in the portion of the interdental gingiva that lies directly apical to the contact area of two adjacent teeth and connects the facial and lingual papillae.

gingival sulcus

space between the free gingiva and the tooth surface

gingival crevicular fluid

fluid that seeps from the underlying connective tissue into the sulcular space

Sharpey fibers of the PDL

The ends of the PDL fibers that are embedded in the cementum and alveolar bone

alveolar process or alveolar bone

Bone of the upper or lower jaw that surrounds and supports the roots of the teeth

Alveolar bone proper

thin layer of bone that lines the socket to surround the root of tooth


a bony socket in the alveolar ridge that holds a tooth

cortical bone

A layer of compact bone that forms the hard, outside wall of the mandible and maxilla on the facial and lingual aspects

Alveolar crest

the most coronal portion of the alveolar process

cancellous bone

latticelike bone that fills interior portion of alveolar process


layer of connective soft tissue covering the outer surface of bone. Has an outer layer of collagenous tissue and inner layer of fine elastic fibers


Network of blood vessels acting as a unit to supply blood to periodontal tissues.

lymphatic system

network of lymph nodes connected by lymphatic vessels that plays an important role in bodys defense against infections.

Lymph nodes

small, bean-shaped structures that are located throughout the body and which filter foreign substances to safely eliminate them from the body.


Study of microscopic features of tissue


Interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism.


the smallest structural unit of living matter capable of functioning independently

extracellular matrix

Mesh like material that surrounds the cellsStructural and biomechanical scaffold for the cells

epithelial tissue

Tissue that makes up the outer surface of the body and the lines the body cavities such as the mouth, stomach, and intestines.

stratified squamous epithelium

Type of epithelium that is compromised of flat cells arranged in several layers

Basal lamina

Thin mat of extracellular matrix, secreted by epithelial cells.


the process by which epithelial cells on the surface of the skin become stronger and waterproof

keritinized epithelial cells

Have no nuclei and form a tough resistant layer on the surface of the skin

nonkeratinized epithelial cells

-Have nuclei, Act as a cushion against stress and wear of the tissue. Are softer and more flexible than keratinized cells.

connective tissue

fills the spaces between the tissues and organs in the body

epithelial - connective tissue interface

the boundary where the epithelial and connective tissues meet

basement membrane

thin layer of tissue visible with a light microscope beneath the epithelium

Epithelial ridges

deep extensions of epithelium that reach down into the connective tissue

connective tissue papillae

finger-like extensions of connective tissue that project up and interlock with the epithelium

cell Junctions

cellular structures that mechanically attach a cell to either its neighboring cell or the basal lamina layer


specialized cell junction that connects two neighboring epithelial cells and their cytoskeletons together.


a specialized cell junction that connects the epithelial cells to the basal lamina

gingival epithelium

a specialized stratified squamous epithelium that functions well in the wet environment of the oral cavity

Oral Epithelium (OE)

epithelium that faces the oral cavity

Sulcular Epithelium (SE)

epithelium that faces the tooth surface without being in contact with the tooth surface

Junctional epithelium (JE)

epithelium that attaches the gingiva to the tooth


partially keratinized


tough, fibrous structural protein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and the oral epithelium

internal basal lamina

A thin basal lamina between the JE and the tooth surface

external basal lamina

A thin basal lamina between the JE and the gingival connective tissue.

collagen fibers

Form a dense network of strong rope-like cables that secure and hold the gingival connective tissues together.

Supragingival Fiber Bundles

A network of ropelike collagen fiber bundles in the gingival connective tissue

dentogingival unit

The junctional epithelium + the gingival fibers?

Fiber bundles of the PDL

specialized connective tissue that surrounds the root of the tooth and connects it with the alveolar bone

cementum proteins

may have an important role in regulating the mineralization process associated with cementum formation

Overlap meets gap


bone remodeling

Remodeling Alveolar bone in response to pressure such as those applied during orthodontic treatment