intro into psychology

introspection

looking within;" examination of one's own thoughts and feelings

Associationism

how experiences remind us of similar experiences in the past

Structuralism

the school of psychology, founded by Wilhelm Wundt, that maintains that conscious experience breaks down into objective sensations and subjective feelings

Functionalism

concerned with how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment

psychanalysis

school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts as determinants of human behavior

psychodynamic thinking

the theory that most of what exists in an individual's mind is unconscious and consists of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes

Behaviorism

the school of thought that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior

Gestalt Psychology

school of thought that emphasizes the tendency to organize perceptions of individual parts to meaningful wholes

Biological Perspective

perspective that emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior

evolutionary perspective

the theory that focuses on the evolution of behavior and mental processes

cognitive perspective

emphasizes the role that thoughts play in determining behavior

psychoanalytic perspective

the perspective that stresses the influences of unconscious forces on human behavior

learning perspective

emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior

social learning theory

the theory that suggests that people can change their environments or create new ones

sociocultural perspective

the perspective that focuses on the influences of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socio-economic status on behavior and mental processes

basic research

research that has no immediate application and is done for its own sake

psychiatrist

a medical doctor who specializes in the treatment of psychological problems and who can prescribe medication for clients

principle

a truth, a rule, or a law

Theory

A statement that attempts to explain why something is the way it is and happens the way it does

Psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

behavior

any action that people can observe and measure

cognitive activities

mental processes that include dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories

psychological constructs

used to learn more about human behavior; something that we cannot see, touch, or measure

Humanistic Perspective

stresses the ability to make choices based on self-fulfillment and self-awareness