Chapter 1


The study of body structure


Function of the body organs

Levels of Structural Organization

1) chemicals (Lowest) 2)Cells-the basic structural & functional units of the body 3) Tissues -are a group of identical that get together to perform a specific function 4) organs -a group of different tissues working together to a specific function 5)organ system - a group of different organ working together to perform a special function 6)organisms (Highest) -body as a whole

integumentary system

-organs: skin, hair & fingernails -function: protects, vitamin D, Temperature

skeletal system

-Organs: bones, cartilages, ligaments& joints -Ligaments: Connects bone to bone -Function: Protects vital organs, stores minerals -minerals: calcium & phosphate

Muscular System

-Organs: muscles- muscles contract( shorten) -function: movement, heat production

Nervous system

-Organs: Brain, spinal cord, & nerves -Function: controls different body activities rapidly

Endocrine system

-Organs: Endocrine Glands( Pituitary gland, thyroid, Adrenal glands, Thymus, pancreas, & pineal gland) -Function:Release hormones directly into the blood, controls different body activities slowly

cardiovascular system

-Organs: Heart& blood vessels( Arteries, Capilaries & veins) -Function: Transportation

lympathic system

-Organs: Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, & lymphoid organs( Tonsils, Thymus gland & Spleen) -Function: Immunity & returning leaked fluids back to bloodstream&prevents us from having swelling(Edema)

Respiratory system

-Organs: Nasal passages, Pharynx( Throat), larynx( Voice box), trachea, bronchi & lungs -Function: Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide

Digestive system

-Organs: oral cavity( mouth), esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, Rectum, & accessory glands( teeth, tongue, & salivary glands)-Function: Digestive & Absorption

urinary system

-Organs: kidneys, ureters,urinary bladder, &urethra-Function:Filters blood, acid/base balance, water/electrolytes balance & blood pressure

Reproductive system

For-males: Organs: testes, scrotum, penis, accessory glands, & duct system -Function: produce sperm For-females: Organs: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus,& vagina -Function:produce eggs






Front of




Toward midline


away from the midline


between a more medial and a more lateral structure


Closer to the point of attachment


away from the point of attachment

Superficial (external)

toward or at the body surface

Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface; more internal

Sagital plane

divides body into left and right parts

midsagittal plane

divides the body into equal right and left sides

frontal (coronal) plane

divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

transverse plane

divides the body into superior and inferior parts

dorsal cavity

Brian & Spinal cord ( Vertebral)

thoracic cavity

1) Pleural cavities -R & L lungs 2) Mediastinum-The space between the lungs: Heart, Esophagus, Trachea, & Thymus Gland

Ventral cavity turns into two cavity divided by Diaphragm

Thoracic cavity & Abdominalpelvic cavity

In abdominalpelvic cavity we have 4 quadrants

-Right upper-Left upper-Right lower -Left lower

Most important organs in quadrants

-Right upper: Liver & Gall bladder -Left upper: Spleen & Stomach -Right lower: Appendix & R ovary-Left lower: Sigmoid colon & L ovary

9 regions




Negative feedback

Balancing mechanism

Positive feedback

Occurs in blood clotting & birth of bby