Biology-Organic Compounds

What makes a compound organic?

carbon and hydrogen

What are the four classifications of macromolecules?

carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

monomers

building blocks of polymers

What are carbohydrates monomer?

monosaccharides

What are lipids monomer?

glycerol and fatty acids

What are proteins monomer?

amino acids

What are nucleic acids monomer?

nucleotides

What is the ratio of carbohydrates?

1:2:1

carbohydrates are

sugars

What are carbohydrates used for?

energy

How is sugar processed from cells?

cellular respiration

How many carbons are in monosaccharides?

3 to 7

What is the formula for glucose and fructose?

C6H12O6

How does the structure of glucose and fructose differ?

the placement of double bonded oxygen

Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides

How are polymers formed?

dehydration synthesis

Name a disaccharide

sucrose

glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

starch

A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose, found in the roots of plants

chitin

Polysaccharide found in arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls.

cellulose

polysaccharide that makes up plant cell walls.

lipids are ________ in water and _______ in nonpolar solutions

insoluble, soluble

lipids are used for

long term energy storage, making up cell membranes, communication, and protection

What are the four types of lipids?

triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes

What is the structure of triglycerides?

glycerol and 3 fatty acids

saturated fats are _______ at room temperature.

solid

saturated fats have no ______ _______.

double bonds

unsaturated fats have _______ ____.

double bond

unsaturated fats form "bends" so they are _______ at room temperature.

liquid

Where do trans fats come from?

unsaturated fats

What are the two types of unsaturated fats?

cis and trans

Describe the structure of cis unsaturated fats.

carbons are on the same side

Describe the structure of trans fats.

carbons are on opposite sides

Why are trans fats the worst for your health?

Their structure is more stable, meaning it is harder to break them down requiring more energy.

Describe the structure of a phospholipid.

phosphate group connected to glycerol and two fatty acids

How do phospholipids interact with water?

they are amphipathic

amphipathic

having both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region

Which region of a phospholipid is hydrophobic?

fatty acid

Which region of a phospholipid is hydrophillic?

the phosphate group

Since phospholipids are amphipathic they form _______.

bilayers

Steroids are made from what?

cholestrol

How many carbon rings do steroids contain?

four

What is the function of waxes?

protection

what sugar does DNA contain?

deoxyribose

What are DNA's nitrogenous bases?

Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine

How many strands does DNA have?

two

What sugar is in RNA?

ribose

What is the backbone of DNA?

phosphate and sugar

What are the bases for RNA?

Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine

What are the three types of RNA?

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

How many strands does RNA have?

one

What is the function of nucleic acids?

store genetic information/build proteins

What is the central dogma of biology?

protein synthesis

Describe the central dogma of biology?

DNA-transcription-RNA-translation-protein

What are the only known things to do reverse transcription?

retro viruses

Describe the structure of a nucleotide.

Made up of a 5 carbon sugar, phosphate and a base

What type of bonds hold n-bases together?

hydrogen bonds

DNA strands are ______-parallel.

anti

What does 5' mean?

starts with phosphate

What does 3' mean?

starts with sugar

How many kinds of amino acids are there?

20

Amino acids are connected by what kinds of bonds?

peptide bonds (covalent)

What part of a cell builds proteins?

ribosomes

Describe the structure of an amino acid.

has an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group

hydrolysis reaction

water is used to break down a polymer

dehydration synthesis

A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.

Name the functions of proteins?

enzymes, hormones, storage, transport, contractile, protective, membrane proteins, structural, toxins

example of hormone

insulin

example of storage proteins

ovalbumin (egg whites)

example of transport proteins

hemoglobin

example of contractile protein

muscle

example of protective proteins

antibodies

Example of membrane protein

receptors, antigens, and membrane transports

Example of structural protein

collagen and keratin

example of toxic protein

botulism, diphtheria

________ determines function of protein.

shape

Each protein has an _________ shape.

unique

What are the four levels of protein structure?

primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

Describe the primary structure of a protein

sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Describe the secondary structure of a protein

The primary chain forms spirals or folded sheets.Alpha Helix (spirals) & Beta Pleated Sheets

What bonds form secondary structure?

hydrogen bonds

Alpha helixes have _______ spacing of hydrogen bonds.

regular

Beta-pleated helixes have _________ spacing of hydrogen bonds.

irregular

Describe the tertiary structure of a protein

The over all 3D shape and structure of proteins

How are tertiary structures formed?

bonds between the r-groups

Name the 5 types of bonds in tertiary structures.

hydrogen, ionic, hydrophobic, Van de Waals, disulfide

What forms disulfide bonds?

Cysteine

Describe the quarternary structure of proteins

more than one polypeptide chain interacting

What is an example of quarternary structure?

hemoglobin

do all proteins have quarternary structure?

no

do all protein have primary structure?

yes

What denatures proteins?

change in ph or temperature

Enzymes are what structure of protein?

tertiary (globular) protein

What is the purpose of enzymes?

to start chemical reactions

exothermic reactions have too _____ energy.

much

endothermic reactions have too _____ energy.

little

How many reactions are enzymes in charge of?

one

Enzymes are not ______ by the reaction

changed/used

What model is based on enzymes?

induced-fit model

What is the area called where enzymes and substrate interact?

the active site

Enzymes _______ the shape of the active site to better fit substrate

change

The name of enzymes are based on what?

substrate

enzymes end in what suffix?

-ase

enzymes often requires ________ or _________.

cofactors, coenzymes

cofactors

inorganic material like minerals: iron

coenzymes

vitamins

Which direction the reaction goes is based on ________ of products and reactants.

concentration

What three things must be right for enzymes to not denature?

substrate, ph, and temp

competitive inhibition

substance that resembles the normal substrate competes with the substrate for the active site

What are the purpose of inhibitors?

to slow down reactions

noncompetitive inhibition

inhibitor binds elsewhere on the enzyme; alters active site so that the substrate cannot bind

allosterioc inhibition

form of noncompetitive inhibition where the enzyme oscillates between actives sites

feedback inhibition

A metabolic pathway is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway.

pfk

rate limiting enzyme in glycolysis