Module 1.1 - Anatomy of Neuroendocrine Organs

What are the 3 structures in the diencephalon

1. Hypothalamus2. Anterior and Posterior Pituitary Gland3. Pineal Gland

What are the 3 zones of the hypothalamus

1. Anterior Zone2. Middle Zone3. Posterior Zone

Name the nucleus and its function in the posterior zone

Mammillary bodies which regulates memory

Name the main nuclei and its main function in the middle zone

1. Paraventricular nucleus - controls the function of the magnocellular hormones oxytocin and vasopressin2. Suprachiasmatic nucleus - controls the function of the circadian rhythm3. Supraoptic nuclei - controls the function of the magnocellular hormones oxytocin and vasopressin

Name the main nucleus and its main function in the anterior zone

1. Preoptic nuclei which controls parvocellular hormones

Name the 3 mediolateral zones of the hypothalamus and their functions

1. Periventricular - Controls release of hormones from anterior pituitary2. Middle - Controls release of hormones from posterior pituitary3. Lateral - Expression of behaviour

What is the function of the adenohypophysis?

To produce and secrete hormones that target other endocrine glands

What is the function of the neurohypophysis

To store and secrete ADH and oxytocin

What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?

Endocrine glands are highly vascularised and ductless to ensure immediate release of hormones into the bloodstream.Exocrine glands are not highly vascularised and are ducted, as they release their hormones into ducts at the surface of the skin. Eg, sweat and salivary glands


Neurogenic heterotopic ossification, which is bone development in the connective tissue around joints

What does the pineal gland produce and where is it located?

The pineal gland produces melatonin and is located posterior to the hypothalamus

What are the functional units of the thyroid gland and what do they produce?

1. Follicular cells, which produces thyroxine2. C Cells which produces calcitonin

Where is the parathyroid gland and what does it produce?

Posterior side of thyroid and produces PTH

Function of PTH and Calcitonin?

PTH acts antagonistically to calcitonin. PTH causes increased Ca2+ levels by stimulating osteoclast degradationCalcitonin causes decreased Ca2+ levels by stimulating calcium deposit in bones

What are the functional components of the adrenal gland?

1. Adrenal cortex - produces mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol)2. Adrenal medulla - produces adrenaline

Describe the endocrine and exocrine glands of the pancreas

Endocrine - produces insulin and glucagonExocrine - produces macromolecules breakdown enzymes