Chapter4: Civil Liberties

Interference 干涉

the interaction between waves that meet

discriminate against sb 歧视

to treat a person or group of people differently form another in an unfair way


Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.


placed under government control

Amendment 修正案

A change in, or addition to, a constitution or law

clause 条款

a group of words with a subject and a verb

arbitrated 仲裁的

judged; decided

violated 违法

break or fail to comply with (a rule or formal agreement).

sabbath 安息日

a holy day for rest and worship

denied 拒绝

to hold back and refuse something

restrict 限制

to limit

intervention 干涉

getting involved in a situation to change what is happening

oversight 监督

Congressional review of the activities of an agency, department, or office.

offend 得罪

to break a law or rule; to cause hurt feelings, anger, or injury

offensive 进攻

causing anger or hurt feelings

imminent lawless action test



indecent or offensive speech or expression

Pornography 色情

sexually explicit material intended to cause sexual arousal

slander 诽谤

spoken defamation

Libel 诽谤

written defamation

contradiction 矛盾

a statement that is the opposite of another statement


unjustified; groundless; undeservedWe could not understand Martin's unwarranted rudeness to his mother's guests.

confession 忏悔

a formal statement admitting that one is guilty of a crime.

trial 审判

The court process to determine whether someone committed a criminal act

jeopardy 危险


innocent 清白的

not guilty

to bear arms 携带武器

Carry weapons like guns

infringe 侵权

to violate, trespass, go beyond recognized bounds