Chapter 10 Principles ok cooking


The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) by natural or mechanical circulation.

natural convection

occurs because of the tendency of warm liquids and gases to rise while cooler ones fall.


A type of energy where a substance gets hot, its molecules absorb energy. This causes the molecule to vibrate rapidly, expand and bounce off one another. The faster they move, the higher its temperature.

mechanical convection

Relies on fans or stirring to circulate heat more quickly and evenly.


The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.


Energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles. ( Microwave)

Infrared cooking

a heating method that uses an electric or ceramic element heated to such a high temperature that it gives off waves of radiant heat that cook the food

Microwave cooking

a heating method that uses radiation generated by a special oven to penetrate the food; it agitates water molecules, creating friction and heat; this energy then spreads throughout the food by conduction (and by convection in liquids)


the irreversible transformation of proteins from a liquid or semiliquid state to a solid state.


the process by which starch granules are cooked; they absorb moisture when placed in a liquid and heated; as the moisture is absorbed, the product swells, softens and clarifies slightly.


the process of cooking sugars; the browning of sugar enhances the flavor appearance of foods.

Maillard reaction

reaction between proteins and carbohydrates that causes food to brown when cooked


the process by which heated water molecules move faster and faster until the water turns to a gas (steam) and vaporizes. [responsible for drying foods]


the process by which certain foods, especially those high in fat, gradually soften and then liquefy when heated.

carryover cooking

the cooking that occurs after a food is removed from a heat source; it is accomplished by the residual heat remaining in the food

Cooking Media (cooking oils and fats)

Dry heat cooking method & Moist heat cooking method

Dry heat cooking method

use air or fat to cook. (broiling, grilling, roasting, and baking, sauteing, pan frying, and deep frying.)Rich flavor due to browning.

Moist heat cooking method

cooking with liquid or steam. Simmering, poaching, boiling, and steaming.

Combination cooking methods

cooking methods, principally braising and stewing, that employ both dry-heat and moist-heat procedures.a third braising & poaching (sous vide)

1. You've just finished making fresh bread crumbs and they're sticking together in clumps rather than being a smooth mixture of evenly chopped crumbs. Chances are the problem is your bread was stale.

FalseThe bread was likely too fresh as opposed to being stale. You should have used 2 - 4 day old bread instead of fresh bread to make the fresh bread crumbs

2. Partially cooking vegetables as part of mise en place may be done to remove bitter flavors, loosen peels, soften firm foods and shorten final cooking times.


3. The combination of water and ice will chill foods more rapidly than a container of only tap water or only ice.


Why are dried breadcrumbs passed trough a tamis after processing?

to ensure even size

When marinating raw meats in the refrigerator, aside from storing them in a covered container, where should they be placed on the shelving unit?

Place on the bottom shelf (at or below 40*F).

Cooking method. fat equipment1. sauteing fat stove2. deep-frying fat deep-fat frying3. broiling air stove,kettle,skillet4. poaching water,stock,wine stove,oven,kettle,skillet,th bath5. grilling air grill 6. simmering water,stock,wine stove,kettle,skillet,th. bath7. baking air oven8. roasting air oven9. stewing fat/then liquid stove,oven,skillet,th. bath10. steaming steam stove, convection steamer11. braising fat/then liquid stove,oven,skillet

Smoking Points1.Whole butter. 250F/121C2.Deep-frying shortening 440F/227C3.Corn oil 450F/232C4.Lard 370F/188C 5.Peanut oil 450F/232C6.Extra virgin olive oil 325-410F/165-210C7.Clarified butter 335-380F/168-193C8.Margarine 410-430F/210-221C

Which method refers to the transfer of heat through a fluid?

Natural convection

What cooking techniques is an example of moist cooking?

steaming, braising & poaching

The purpose for the shape of the work used for stir-frying is that the rounded shape:

diffuses the heat and makes tossing and stirring easier.

Which of the following is an example of infrared cooking?

glowing coals in a fire, toaster ovens, and broilers

In pan-frying, how much fat or oil should be in the pan?

1/2 to 2/3 of the way up on the product being cooked.

What cooking techniques is defined in the following statement: "To briefly and partially cook a food in boiling water or hot liquid.


Which does not describe convection heat transfer?

Energy is transferred by waves of heat or light strinking the food.

A liquid thickened with a starch, will begin to thicken gradually (depending on what starch was used) over what temperature range?

150F to 212F

Which statement is false regarding deep fat frying?

Deep-frying in a saucepan is equally as effective as using a commercial fryer

Which of the two lipids are considered flavorful fats for frying, but inferior because they cannot be kept at high cooking temperatures for long periods of time?

Pork fat (lard)

Which of the following is not important to consider when choosing the appropriate type of fat in which to fry foods?


Which of the following practices related to properly maintaining deep-fryer fat to maximize its lifespan is relatively unimportant?

Store in an airtight container

Braising-liquid partially covers the food-large cuts of meat & vegetables-cuts can be browned before adding the liquid-less gravy

Stewing-food is immersed in the liquid-small & even cuts of meat & vegetables-cuts are not browned before adding the liquid-more gravy

List two recommendations on how to properly steam a food product

1. Trim items before steaming so they can be cook evenly.2. A perforated hotel pan can be set over a deeper pan of boiling water, covered and used as a steamer.

In six steps explain how to properly saute a chicken breast?

1. Heat a saute pan and then heat a small amount of fat.2. Cut, pound, season and prepare to be sauted.3. Add the chicken breast to the saute pan; presentation side down. (Do not crowd the pan)4. Adjust the temp. so its exterior browns properly5.Turn or toss as needed6. Cook util done. Check with the thermometer.

Describe the seven steps necessary for correct poaching of a food item.

1.cut, trim, prepare2.Bring an adequate amount of cooking liquid to the desire starting temp. Then, place food.3.For submersion poaching, liquid should cover the food.4.For shallow poaching, liquid should cover half of the food. Cover with a lid 5.Maintaining proper temp; poach the food to desire doneness. 6.Remove food and hold it for service in a portion of the cooking liquid, or using a ice bath, cool it in liquid.7.The cooking liquid can sometimes be used to prepare sauce or reserved for poaching foods.

Matching1.boiling--- 212F/100C (at sea level) 2.broiling---up to 2000F/1093C3.simmering---185F/85C to 205F/96C4.poaching---160F/71C to 180F/82C5.steaming---212F/100C or higher (at sea level)6.deep-fat frying---325F/160C to 375F/190C


A microwave can be considered an acceptable replacement for traditional ovens.

false- it dries out food

Sauteing is an example of the conduction heat transfer method.


A wood-fired grill is an example of the convection heat transfer method.


Considering proper food safety guidelines, lasagna should be baked to an internal temperature of 160F/71C


Most proteins complete coagulation at 160F/71C to 185F/85C.

False 150-212

In broiling the heat source comes from below the cooking surface.

False-from above

Deep frying is an example of a combination cooking method.

False-Dry heat

When creating crosshatch markings on a grilled steak, the meat should be rotated 90 degrees from the original position on the grill.


Stir-frying is a variation in technique to sauteing except it utilizes more fat in the process.

False-same amount of fat

A court bouillon should be used when steaming foods in order to prevent flavor loss.

False-for poaching

Blanching means to partially cook a food product in a boiling liquid or hot fat.


The process of stewing generally takes less time than braising because the food products are cut into smaller pieces.


Cooking destroys harmful microorganisms and makes food easier to ingest and digest.


The internal temperature of a roasted chicken breast should be 180F/82C.


The swimming method is best to use when large quantities of food need frying.


Pastas are some of the few starches that can hold up to the rapid convection movement of boiling.


Wire frying baskets should be filled with foods to be fried while hanging over the fat, as to prevent the possibility of dripping fat or water on the floor or work surfaces.


Grilled double lamb chops should be cooked to an internal temp of 145*F.


Why the potato cooks faster broiling than baking in oven.

Because boiling is a submerged method where the potato cooks evenly. But, in baking is a air method and is transfer it to the outside of the potato towards the center.

Certain frying oils have been hydrogenated, what is the benefit of using this?

improve taste and texture, less likely to become rancid, last longer.

Two ways of determining doneness of a braised piece of meat.