intro to sono: medico-legal/clinical labs test#2


right to act independently. patient has right to choose their treatment or refuse it


best interest of patient


obligation to protect patient privacy "patient-physician privilege


moral rightness/fairness. who gets what treatment when resources are scarce


avoidance of evil acts. "first do no harm


faithfulness; loyalty. keeping your word


truth-telling; not lying to patientsprinciple that governs the patient's right to learn about their diagnosis


patient's right to be treated w/respect and appropriateness

verbal communication

allowable communicationnever allow discussions to be overheard even if no names are used

written information

safeguards patient records, hide patient names on schedules

computer info

never share passwords, log out after use

copying/faxing/receiving faxes

correct fax#, confidentiality statement on coversheetretrieves faxes immediately

personal conduct

access only on "need to know" basis. no curiosity searches

breach of confidentiality

Failure to protect patient privacy (tort action that violates HIPAA law)cannot assume we can share patient information w/ a family member, spouse without the pt's consent

aids ethics problem solving



decisions based on consequences/outcome of the action/decision


doing what they believe is right regardless of consequences


requires hospitals to treat ER pts regardless of ability to pay for treatment

statutory law

written law

common law

unwritten law

civil law

addresses harm to one party by another


actions leading to personal injury or property damage; compensation sought


facts sought by plaintiff's attorney - audio/video evidence, study images


presentation of facts; Sonographer or student may be called to testify

scope of practice

procedures, acts and processed permitted by law which the individual has received education and clinical experience, in which demonstrated competency


true positive (TP and FN)do have disease and we correctly find it


true negative (FP and TN)do not have disease and we correctly find no disease

complete blood count (cbc)

rbc, wbc, hct, hgb, plt count

excess rbc

polycythemia vera

decreased rbc


define hematocrit (hct)

portion of blood occupied by RBCpcv - packed cell volumelow lvls suggests anemia and/or bleeding

define hemoglobin (hgb)

RBC carries oxygenlow lvls suggests anemia

white blood cells (leukocytes)

high lvls = infectionincreases w/ cancer, exposure to certain medications/chemicals

platelet count (plt)

too few - uncontrolled bleedingtoo many - blood clots

hemoglobin a1c

test for people suspected or known to have diabetes


produced by liver helps blood clotproduction of PT depends on intake and use of VitK

prothrombin time (pt)

measures how quickly pt turns to thrombin (how quickly blood clots can form)

when PT is prolonged, administration go VitK may be necessary before invasive procedures, to ensure...

normal clotting time

partial thromboplastin time (ptt)

measures the time it takes for blood to clot


increased level of bilirubin cause bile pigment to stay in bloodyellow cast/white of eyes

what is infiltrative liver disease

liver tissue invaded or replaced by abnormal proteins, or complexes

alanine transaminase (alt)

associated w/ liver as it is normally released into blood by normal liver cell deathelevated lvls suggests existence of: alcoholic or viral hepatitis, liver damage, diabetes


breaks down starch


breaks down fats

blood urea nitrogen (bun)

measures the amount of urea in the blood

bun increased levels

poor renal function

bun decreased levels

liver disease or damage


high values may indicate poor renal function or renal disease

blood in urine is always


positive urine test for nitrates is


alpha-fetoprotein (afp)

levels tested to predict likelihood of down, ntd (neural tube disorders), like spina bifida

beta hcg

produced in early pregnancy.can detect ectopic or failing pregnancies

beta hcg testing in females w/ suspected...

ovarian cancer

beta hcg testing in men to determine presence of...

testicular cancer

what is the quad screen test used for?

assess likelihood of genetic disordersinhibin-a: new addition to screen

why is quad screen better than the triple screen?

higher sensitivity and specificity in detecting down syndromelower FP rate

high levels of ca-125 suggests...

indicate benign tumor