POL S 145 EU


Brexit is an abbreviation of two English words: 'Britain' and 'exit' and refers to the withdrawal process of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU). Article 50 of the Treaty of the European Union regulates the withdrawal process of any Member State. Treaty of lisbon


executive-bureaucratic arm of the EU, respon-sible for developing proposals for new laws and policies, for overseeing the execu-tion of those laws and policies once they are adopted, and for promoting the general interests of the EU.

Copenhagen Conditions

an applicant must be demo-cratic, free market and willing to adopt the existing body of EU laws.

Council of Ministers (EU)

1. enact and design policies 2. EU's central administrative unit3. Has Final Authority


ECSC need to knows : treaties of rome , single european act, The Maastricht treaty( these three were importat for how the EU was shaped and came to be.

Democratic Deficit (EU)

Used to describe what some people say is a gap between the powers of the EU and the power of its citizens to influence EU decision-making.

Differentiated integration

as indicating different levels of integration in terms of both the extent of centraliza-tion and of the number of countries taking part.Europe a la carte - some countries out opt out of new policiesEnhanced cooperation: Two or more countries proceed more quickly than others (Schengen Agreement)Multi-speed Integration: One of more countries is not considered to be ready for full integration (Euro0Derogations: one or more states can be excused from implementing a particular part of law or treaty, or postpone its implementation, due to state-level problems

Eastern Enlargement of the EU

the EU's enlargement policy aims to unite European countries in a common political and economic project. Guided by the Union's values and subject to strict conditions, enlargement has proved to be one of the most successful tools in promoting political, economic, and societal reforms, and in consolidating peace, stability, and democracy across the continent.

European Council

collegiate body that defines the overall political direction and priorities of the European Union. It is composed of the heads of state or government of the EU member states

European Parliament

is the only directly elected EU body, with representatives apportioned by each member state's population. Unlike traditional legislatures, it can't propose legislation, but laws can't pass without its approval. It also negotiates and approves the EU budget and oversees the commission.


Functionalism is based on function as opposed to territory outside of its bordersacts so that governments of all countries can create laws and order without there being any unwariness. Other characteristics include state preferences being changed by IOs, functionally separate entities encouraging cooperation, authority being transferred from the state to the IO etc.




has to do with expanding territory look at the eastern enlargement as an example

Treaty of Paris (ECSC)

1951 The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was signed in Paris by Belgium, France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. It entered into force for a 50-year period. Members of the European Parliamentary Assembly were selected by their national parliaments. organise the free movement of coal and steel and to free up access to sources of production.(precursor to today's Commission).

Treaty of Maastricht

1992; European nations agree to make an economic and political integration with a common currency, passport, and banking system; Established structure and cooperation in immigration and law enforcement, deepening

Treaty of Rome (EEC)

Treaty of Rome, or EEC Treaty, brought about the creation of the European Economic Community, the best known of the European Communities. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. Deepening

Treaty of Nice

EU's December 2000 treaty that opened the door to the broadening of the EU in 2004 and 2007 and outlined provisional plans for reforming the EU's institutions so they could function effectively with as many as thirty members, including the possibility of enacting a constitution.

Treaty of Lisbon

A European Union-sanctioned treaty that will allow the European Parliament to become the co-equal legislator for almost all European laws. regulations, establishing more centralized leadership and foreign policy, a process for countries that want to leave the EU, and a streamlined process for enacting new policies.

Treaty of Amsterdam

set the maximum number of Members of the European Parliament, in line with Parliament's request, at 700 (Article 189). b. The composition of the Commission and the question of weighted votes were covered by a 'Protocol on the Institutions' attached to the Treaty.


A supranational organization is a multinational union or association in which member countries cede authority and sovereignty on at least some internal matters to the group, whose decisions are binding on its members. In short, member states share in decision making on matters that will affect each country's citizens. Commission and parliament.


Spillover is a concept coined by neo-functionalism in the 1960s in order to give a count of the process of European integration. It refers to the inner dynamics whereby the members of a regional scheme would be compelled to either enlarge the scope or increase the level of their mutual commitments or both.

Single European Act (SEA)

An EU treaty that led to the removal of many trade barriers. brought amendments to the Treaties establishing the European Communities and established European political cooperation. Once the Single European Act (SEA) entered into force, the title 'European Parliament'(which the Assembly had used since 1962) was made official.

Schengen Agreement

The 1985 agreement between some - but not all - European Union member countries to reduce border formalities in order to facilitate the free movement of citizens between member countries of this new "Schengenland." For example, today there are no border controls between France and Germany or between France and Italy.

Rule of Law crisis

The Polish constitutional crisis, also known as the Polish rule-of-law crisis, is a political conflict ongoing since 2015 in which the Polish government has been accused of failing to adhere to European and Polish constitutional law.

Refugee Crisis in Europe