Chapter 31: Hygiene


hair loss or baldness


the decay of teeth with the formation of cavities


wax in the external ear canals, consisting of a heavy oil and brown pigment


ulceration and dry scaling of the lips with fissures at the angles of the mouth, is most often caused by vitamin B complex deficiencies


inflammation of the gingivae or gums


inflammation of the tongue, can be causes by deficiencies of vitamin B 12, folic acid, and iron.


offensive breath


infestation with lice


marked inflammation of the gums that also involves degeneration of the dental periosteum (tissues) and bone


invisible, destructive, bacterial film that builds up on teeth and eventually leads to the destruction of tooth enamel


inflammation of the oral mucosa, has numerous causes, such as bacteria, virus, mechanical trauma, irritants, nutritional deficiencies, and systemic infection. Symptoms may include heat, pain, increased flow of saliva and halitosis.


hard deposit on the teeth near the gum line formed by plaque buildup and dead bacteria

personal hygiene

measures for maintaining a minimal level of personal cleanliness and grooming that promotes physical and psychological well-being.

the integumentary system

-largest organ of the body-first line of defense-prevents the entry of pathogens -prevents excessive water loss-minimizes absorption of harmful substances

hair and nails

____________ and __________ are accessory structures of the skin.

oral health

______________ is directly related to systemic health.

poor oral health

____________ is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.


Factor that can affect personal hygiene like how often they like to bathe or with what products.

socioeconomic class

Factor that can affect personal hygiene due to options available to that person. Lack of funds or lack of clean clothes.

spiritual practices

Factor that can affect personal hygiene depending on what they believe.

Developmental Level

Factor that can affect personal hygiene due to what children learn while growing up.

Health State

Factor that can affect personal hygiene due to disease, surgery or injury that enables them to preform hygiene practices themselves.

Personal Preferences

Factor that can affect personal hygiene due to their own hygiene practices.

diabetes mellitus

This can result in peripheral vascular disease; patients who have peripheral vascular disease may require hospitalization related to problems associated with the feet

musculoskeletal system

Impairment of this system can produce muscle weakness, decreased ROM, impaired balance, fatigue, and/or lack of coordination.


When examining the ________, use a good light source, compare bilateral parts for symmetry, identify any variables known to cause skin problems like immobility, malnutrition, decreased hydration, sun exposure, ect.




tissue destruction on skin

buccal mucosa

the inner surface of the cheeks


a small red or purple spot caused by bleeding into the skin.

gum diease

The major cause of tooth loss in adults older than 35 years of age is ...

dry oral mucosa

may be related to dehydration or caused by mouth breathing, altered salivation, or medications

oral maligancies

appearing as lumps or ulcers, must be distinguished from benign mouth problems because early detection may lead to cure


a condition characterized by itching and flaking of the scalp and may be complicated by the embarrassment it causes.


Preschool and elementary aged children and families are most often affected the most with what?


_________ are an important problem because they can transmit serious diseases such as Lyme disease.

early morning care

shortly after the patient wakes up, assisting them with toileting and then providing comfort measures to refresh the patient and prepare them for breakfast, including washing the face and hands and providing mouth care.

morning care (AM care)

after breakfast, complete care which includes: bathing, oral care, toileting, mouth care, back massage, special skin care measure (decubitus ulcer or fungal infection), hair care, cosmetics, dressing, and positioning. This is the time to change the bed linens and tidy the bedside area also.

afternoon care

Routine care that occurs between lunch and the evening meal, help patients with toileting, hand washing and oral care.

hour of sleep care (HS care)

Before the patient goes to bed, offer to toilet them again, wash face and hands, and oral care. This is also a good time for a back massage as patients find it soothing and may help them to fall asleep. Some patients may also find a bath to be soothing and sleep promoting at this time. At this time it is also important to change soiled linens, position the patient comfortably, and ensure the call be is within reach.

as needed care (PRN care)

Offer individual hygiene measures as needed.Change clothing and bed linens of diaphoretic patients.Provide oral care every 2 hours if indicated.

Bathing Pros

-clean the skin-acts as a skin conditioner-helping to relax a restless person-promoting circulation-helping to improve self-image-strengthen nurse-patient relationship

skin rashes

eruptions or inflammations of the skin that may be found anywhere on the body


this can follow a patients bath, it acts as a general body conditioner and can relieve muscle tension and promote relaxation.


Failing to wear ______ for a long period of time allows the gum line to change, which effects the fit of them.


Store dentures in _____ water when not in the mouth.

whistling sound

A ____________________________ that is audible when the hearing aid is held in the hand with the power on and the volume high indicates that the battery is functioning properly.


The best way to clean the nose is to blow it _______.


True or FalseEvidence-based practice has failed to establish a relationship between healthy teeth and a diet sufficient in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D.


True or FalseIf a patient wear contact lenses but cannot remove them, the family caregiver is responsible for removing them.