Addictive Behaviour

1) What is World Health Organisation deffinition of addiction?

Addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by repeated consumption of a drug, natural or synthetic

2) What are the three parts to addiction?

-Initiation
-Maintenance
-Relapse

3) What is the process of initiation?

The process where individuals start to become addicted.

4) What is the process of maintenance?

The process whereby people continue to behave addictively even in the face of adverse consequences.

5) What is the process of relapse?

The process whereby individuals who have managed to give up their addictive habits start to show signs and symptoms of the behaviour again.

6) What are the three models of addiction?

-Biological
-Cognitive
-Behavioural

7) What does the biological model involve?

-Influences on behaviour?
-Genetic
-Neurotransmitter factors
-Disease
-All causing onset and maintenance

8) Who researched genetics in the biological model?

-Agrawal and Lynskey
-Noble et al
-Blum et al

9) What research did Agrawal and Lynskey do into genetics in the biological model?

Found in a review of studies looking at illicit drug abuse and dependence that it was significantly affected by genetic influence with heritability estimates ranging between 45% to 79%.

10) What research did Noble et al into genetics?

Found there was an A1 variant on the DRD2 gene in more than 2/3 of deceased alcoholics, whereas only 1/5 of deceased non-alcoholics had the A1 variant on the DRD2 gene.

11) What did Blum research into genetics?

Founf children of alcoholics had an increased chance of showing the A1 variant. People who inherit the A1 variant appeared to have fewer dopamine receptors in the pleasure centres of the brain, because of this Noble et al referred to the DRD2 gene as the 'reward gene'.
People who inherit this A1 variant of the gene are more likely to become addicted to drugs which increase dopamine levels, compensating for the deficiency by stimulating the few dopamine receptors which they have. The result is that the addiction is maintained as only with the drug do they feel good.

12) What are the genetics of addiction, initiation?

-Family and twin studies show heritability of alcohol dependence of 50-60% (McGue 19999).
-Agrawel heritability of 45-79%.
-Kendler Virginia twin registry found a common genetic factor that linked alcohol or drug dependence or antisocial behaviour disorders.

13) What did Noble and Comings research about specific genes and drugs?

-Linked the D2 Dopamine receptor to severe alcoholism.
-2/3 of deceased alcoholics had the A1 variant of the gene and 1/5 of deceased non-alcoholics.
-Increased prevalence of the gene born to alcoholics.
-A1 version of DRD2 appears to reduce dopamine receptors in "pleasure centres" of the brain. Leading to higher risk of alcohol abuse to compenstate for low levels of dopamine.
-Cocaine, heroin and nicotine addiction has been linked to this A1 gene variant.
-Comings found 48.9% of smokers carried the gene in comparison to 25.9% of the general population.

14) What is the evaluation of genetics and addiction?

-Individual difference: genetic disposition or resistance.
-Inconsisten findings: Meta analysis conflicts with Noble's findings that DRD2 is strongly connected with alcohol abuse.
-DRD2 and other disorders: Comings found the A1 variant as common in autistic and Tourette sufferers as alcoholics and strangely these conditions to not cause pleasure seeking behaviours.

15) What is the evaluation of the bioligical model, genetics?

-Most of the research has focussed on alcoholism, although it seems other addictions e.g. smoking and gambling follow a similar pattern.
-Family studdies (e.g. Merikangas) have shown high concordance rates for alcoholism between relatives (36%), but cannot separate genetic and environmental influences.
-However, adoption studies and twin studies have also shown high concordance (e.g. Kendler).
-Even if a genetic component could be confirmed, it would still be necessary to find a mechanism by which the genetic influence takes place.
-Even if someone has a genetic vulnerability they still have to be exposed the the substance.
-Van den Bree et al found gender differences in the influence of genetics, accounting for 47% of differences in female MZ and DZ twins, but for 79% in males.

16) What are the three stages in the disease model?

-Initiation
-Maintenance
-Relapse

17) How does initiation fit in with the disease model?

-Addictive drugs trigger the release of dopamine the brain reward system that says "do it again".
-Crack cocaine causes a massive release of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway.
-Mesolimbic pathway related to recording the value of important experiences!
-"Incentive senseation theory" suggests repetition of drug abuse builds sensitivity in the brain to the drug which in turns maintains desirability even during abstinence.

18) How does maintenance fit in with the disease model?

-Chronic exposure to a drug leads eventually to a reduction in activity (down regulation).
-The resulting anxiety, depression and stress turns what was a positive reinforcement scenario of reward for taking drugs into a negative reinforcement scenario where feeling normal is desired.
-The resulting situation is either a need for higher doses or something stronger (soft drugs leading to hard ones) Koob and Kreek.

19) How does relapse fit in with the disease model?

-Even if the taking of a drug has ended and it no longer gives much of a high there may still be an overwhelming urge to take the drug.
-Lasting memories perpetuate the need for the drug and its previous positive rewards.
-Addicts carve the dopamine rush and the frontal cortex's resistance to this abuse has been weakened over this period of drug taking.

20) What did Bostick and Bucci and Caine research into the dopamine and addiction?

Bostick and Bucci treated a 24 year old male addicted to pornography. He was in the habit of watching pornography on the web for up to 8 hours a day.
They prescribed nalextrone which blocks the release of dopamine associated with his on-line activity. This extinguished the behaviour by preventing the reward associated with this behaviour.
Mice who were bred without dopamine receptor D1 did not get addicted to cocaine and did not self administer when they had the opportunity. (Caine)

21) What is an evaluation of dopamine and addiction?

-Volkow administered Ritalin to adult volunteers. These raises dopamine, some liked this effect and others did not.
-He found those that liked it had fewer D2 receptors that those that did not like it.
-This produces a group sensitive and a group insensitive to stimulation. More worryingly some personalities exposed to addiction.
-The disease model may not be quite an accurate one but it is a better model than the paast one where "drunks were treated as delinquents".
-D2 receptors reduce in monkeys when they loose social status (Grant).
-Volkow showed those raised in stimulating environments are more protected from addiction and less likely to need artificial boosts.

22) What are some evaluating points of the biological models?

-They can help explain why addiction is only present in some individuals (predisposition), despite being in the same environment.
-Neurotransmitters have complex effects and these are not fully understood.
-Nurochemical explanations neglect factors of social situations and social context. E.g. Drug taking in Vietnam was high, but most soldiers stopped when back in their US home environment. Biological explanations are thus too reductionist.

23) What are the cognitive models of addiction?

Cognitive models of addiction emphasise habitual ways of thinking and interpreting events that might lead to the development of addictive behaviour. From this perspective, the development of an addiction does not depend on the properties of the drug itself or its activity, but on the reasons for taking it or engaging in an activity. They may do it to cope with life's problems or to 'self medicate'. When these coping mechanisms are used excessively they tend to create more problems than they solve.

24) What is the initiation part of the self-medication model?

Gelkopf et al proposes that individuals use drugs intentionally to treat psychological symptoms from which they suffer. The particular drug that an addict uses is not selected at random, but is one that is perceived as dealing with the problem. The initiation of drug use and the selection of a particular drug are based upon its effect. It helps to fulfil 3 major functions:
-Mood regulation
-Performance management
-Distraction
The drug doesn't have to work; it just needs to perceived as doing so.

25) What happens during the maintenance and relapse stage of the self-medication model?

Many smokers mention stress relief as a major reason why they persis with their habit. However, smokers report higher levels of stress than non-smokers, and their levels of stress actually decrease when they stop smoking. When they relapse and start smoking again, their stress levels increase again (Cohen and Lichenstein).

26) What eplanation has Parrot offered to explain the relationship between stress and smoking?

Many smokers mention 'stress relief' as a major reason why they persest with their habit. However, smokers actually report higher levels of stress than non-smokers which decreases when they stop smoking. When they relapse their stress levels rise again. Parrot says each cigarette has an acute effect on stress because it relieves the withdrawal symptoms. However, there is a chronic effect from smoking that increases stress.

27) What research support is there for the self medication model?

Gottdiener et al carried out a meta-analysis of ten studies to test one of the central features of the self medication model - that substance abuse disorders are associated with failures of ego control.

28) What does ego control represent?

Represents the ability to control impulses to self-medicate through drugs and alcohol.

29) What did Gottdiener et al find?

Participants with substance abuse disorders showed significant failures in ego control compared with a control group of non-alcoholics.

30) Does Gottdiener's findings show support for the self medication model?

The self-medication model argues that some form of pschological distress must precede drug use, as the one necessitates the use of the other. There is some evidence to support this, more likely to turn to alcohol and other drugs to remove sexual inhibitions explain that many cases of addiction where there are no major psychological problems to be overcome.

31) What are some problems of the cause and effect?

There is some evidence to suggest that psychological trauma leads to excessive drug use. Sanjuan et al found that sexually abused women were more likely to turn to drugs and alcohol to reduce sexual inhibition than were non-abused women. However, the self medication model cannot explain addiction when there is no history of major psychological problems.

32) What are the expectancy theories?

Expectations about the outcomes of addictive behaviour are thought to contribute to their excessive use. Addicts differ from non addicts in terms of their expectations about the positive versus negative effects of these behaviours.

33) What is the initiation part of the expectancy theories?

Heavier drinkers have been shown to have more positive expectations about the effects of alcohol compared to light drinkers. Among heavier drinkers drinking has also been shown to be associated with expectations of social and physical pleasure, tension reduction, greater sociability enhanced motor and cognitive functioning (Brown).

34) What is the maintenance and relapse part of the expectancy theories?

Brandon said as addiction develolps, the activity is influenced less by conscious expectations and more by unconscious expectations. Most research in this area typically measures the likelihood of experiencing certain effects from a particular drug.
Expectations can also be manipulated to prevent relapse. Tate et al told smokers that they should expect no negative experiences during a period of abstinence. This led to fewer reported somatic effects and psychological affects (mood disturbance) than in a control group who were not primed in this way. Those that were told that they would experience somatic but not psychological effects reported more seevere somatic complaints than in a control group who were told not to expect this.

35) What did Leigh find about the expected outcomes in relation to alcohol consumption?

Suggests that the subjective evaluation of those expected effects might be an important determinant of drinking behaviour. Leigh found that the more favourably people evaluated the impairment effects of drinking the greater was their overall alcohol use.

36) What is an evaluationof the expectancy theories?

Much of the research into expectancy theory is concerned with consumption rather than addiction per se. Sometimes it is focussed on problematic behaviour, such as binge drinking, but rarerly does it consider loss of control.

37) How did Becker and Murphy contribute to the rational choice theory?

People choose to engage in an activity as a result of weighing up the costs and benefits. The theory uses the concept of 'utility', which in economics is a measure of the relative satisfaction resulting from consumption of a particular good or service. To calculate the utility of a particular activity, individuals must weigh up the costs incurred againsst the benefits they are likely to receive. From this perspective, addiction is experienced as an increase in consumption of 'goods' because, presumably, individuals have made a rational choice concerning their current and future 'utility' of their drug taking, drinking or gambling.

38) What is the maintenance and relapse part of the rational choice theory?

According to this theory, addicts are rational consumers who look ahead and behave in a way that is likely to maximise the preferences they hold. An exception to this rule appears to be gambling, as rational addiction theory would predict that gamblers, particularly those which lose, should not continue their gambling behaviour. The study by Griffiths offers an explanation for this based on the cognitive bias that distorts the reasoning of addictive gamblers.

39) What was Griffiths 'fruit gambling' study?

Griffiths set out to discover whether regular gamblers thought and behaved differently to non-regular gamblers. He compared 30 regular and 30 non-regular gamblers in terms of their verbalisations as they plaayed a fruit machine.
Regular gamblers believed they were more skilful than they actually were, and were more likely to make irrational verbalisations during play. They tended to treat the machine as if it were a person. Regular gamblers also explained away their losses by seeing 'neer misses' as 'near wins'.

40) What is an evaluation of the rational choice theory?

This theory is able to explain why, contrary to the 'out of control' view of addiction, some addicts are able to simply stop engaging in the activity.
West suggests that the economic view of addiction proposed by Becker and Murphy has a number of implications for intervention. Drugs can be treated in much same way as any other consumer behaviour, i.e. by changing their utility for the individual. In this way, the costs of continuation become higher than the benefits.

41) What does the learning theory of addiction explain?

learning theories explain addicitive behaviour without involving any conscious evaluation of the costs or benefits of a particular activity. Individuals typically learn to perform behaviours because they are associated with onset of something pleasant or the termination of something unpleasant. Impulses to engage in the sort of addictive behaviours that are generated by this learned mechanism may become so powerful that they can overwhelm conscious desires to restrain these activities.

42) What is the initiation part and the role of secondary reinforrcers of classical conditioning?

In classical conditioning, stimuli that precede, or occur at the same time as a learned stimulus may become secondary reinforcers, deriving their influence only by associating. For example, research has shown that alcohol related stimuli elicit the many of the same physiological responses as alcohol itself, such as increased heart rate and arousa (Glautier).

43) What is the maintenance and relapse part of classical conditioning?

Once a drug habit has been established, it may be maintained through the threat of withdrawal symptoms. In classical conditioning terms, the drug effect is an unconditioned stimulus, which challenges the internal regulation of the body (West). The body's defensive responses to this challenge is an unconditioned response as it tries to restore equilibrium. Any stimulus that precedes a drug dose becomes a conditioned stimulus, leading to a compensatory conditioned response from the body in anticipation of the effects of the drug. Conditioned responses that occur in the absence of the anticipated drug effect put the body into a state of disequilibrium, which the individual experiences as withdrawal symptoms, and thus they are motivated to take the drug again to alleviate the symptoms.

44) What is the initiation part and the role of positive reinforcement of operant conditioning?

Any behaviour producing a pleasurable consequence is likely to be repeated again. All positive reinforcers have the same physiological effect: they increase of dopamine in the area of the brain called the mesolimbic system. This effect can be produced by natural reinforcers such as food, drink and sexual contact, but also by addictive substances cush as cocaine, opiates, nicotine and alcohol (White). Crack-cocaine is thought to cause a massive and rapid activation of the dopamine receptors in this area of the brain. Positive activation of the dopamine receptors in this area of the brain. Positive reinforcement is not restricted to drug addiction. Griffiths argues that gamblers playing slot machines may become addicted because of the physiological rewards, psychological rewards, social rewards as well as financial rewards if they win.

45) What is the maintenance and relapse, the role of negative reinforcement of operant conditioning?

After repeated exposure to certain drugs, withdrawal symptoms appear if the drug is not used. Withdrawal symptoms are compensatory reactions that tend to be the opposite of the effects of the drug. Even a very short period of time without the drug could lead to unpleasant symptoms, which can be reduced by taking the drug again. As withdrawal symptoms are uncompfortable, any reduction in these effects would constitute negative reinforcement. This explains relapse after a period of absinence.

46) What is the initiation part of the social learning theory?

SLT extends the ideas of classical and operant conditioning to include learning that takes place through observation and communication. Addiction to drugs begins through operant conditioning, as the user learns about the actual consequences of drug taking. Any positive consequences, whether they are experienced directly or vicariously through the observation of others, will result in repeated drug use. However, some drug taking eperiences lead to adverse effects for the individual or are witnessed in others. The experience of a negative event following drug taking decreases the likelihood of the experience being repeated in the future. Individuals begin to recognise that different classes of drugs have different types of effect, and therefore arouse different 'outcome expectations' and thus trigger motivation to use particular types of drugs.

47) What is the maintenance and relapse part of the social learning theory?

Because most drugs have positive and negative effects, users are motivated to both approach a drug and avoid it (West). Through classical conditioning addicts have also learned to associate other stimuli with the drug. If, after a period of abstinence, they come into contact with one of these cues, they are at a higher risk of relapse. Marlatt and George propose that the presence of multiple cues arouses 'positive outcome expectations' which then trigger a motivation to use the drug once more.

48) What are some problems for an operant conditioning explanation?

A learning of addiction explains addictive behaviour in terms of the consequences of that behaviour. A popular view of why humans self-administer potentially lethal drugs such as heroin is because these drugs activate the reward system in the brain. Some aspects of this explanation is not dealt with. For example, Robinson and Berridge point out that although many people take potentially addictive drugs at some time in their lives, relatively few become addicts. This suggests that there are other psychological and biological factors involved in the transition from consumption to addiction.

49) What is some research support of the social learning theory?

Many of the claims of social learning influences on the development of addictive behaviours have been supported by research evidence. For addictive behaviours ha

50) What is some implications of self-efficacy for relapse?

A concept relating to social learning theory is that of self-efficacy: this is a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Among adults, those who smoke more frequently have less confidence in their ability to abstain, and among adolescents, self-efficacy predicts the onset of smoking and progression from experimental to regular use (Lawrance)

51) What are some key evaluating points of all learning theories?

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52) How are individual differences used to evaluate all learning theories?

Can explain individual differences: Many people have tried smoking but not all get addicted to it. For instance, SLT shows that only people who are observed getting constant rewards for their behaviour will be imitated. Operant: your friends call you an idiot for smoking so you stop.

53) How does learning theories being reductionist get used to evaluate all learning theories?

Learning theories are reductionist: Can't explain why people exposed to similar stimuli respond differently; E.g. why two people can enjoy drinking equally, but only one becomes an alcoholic. Need to consider other factors such as biological, personality and cognitive.

54) How is the nurture versus nature debate used to evaluate all learning theories?

Nurture versus nature: Ignores the fact that biology is also applicable and can be complimentary to behaviourism. Learning explanations of addiction explains addictive behaviour in terms of the consequences of that behaviour. A popular view of why human's self-administer potentially lethal drugs such as heroin/nicotine is because these drugs activate the reward system in the brain. The behavioural view can there for be seen as compimenting the biological approach. Learned response actually change pathways in the brain.

55) How is the deterministic approach used to evaluat all learning theories?

Deterministic. You are pre destined to become an addict. Learning theories explain addictive behaviour without involving any conscious evaluation of the costs or benefits of a particular activity. Behaviour has been learnt unconsciously almost reflexively. Not your fault though. You can sometimes blame parents though if they have smoked or gambled for instance.

56) How can age be used to evaluate all of the learning theories?

SLT and addiction only seems to influence teenagers. Research has shown that as people get older they are less influenced by peers/role models to become addicts.

57) How is opperant and classical conditioning used to evaluate the learning theories?

Operant and classical see humans as passive beings who respond automatically without thinking, they do not take into account that we are thinking beings and do not respond in simple stilulus-response fashion to environmental triggers. SLT on the other hand acknowledges the importance of cognitive factors.

58) What has SLT been important for?

SLT has been responsible in stressing the importance of role models; children of smokers are more likely to smoke (cause and effect?) It shows how celebrities and media representations of drinking, smoking etc can influence people to initiate, maintain or relapse into addictive behaviours. WHO initiated the ban on advertising smoking.

59) How can psychology as a science be used to evaluate learning theories?

-Researching addicting in humans can be very difficult because not only is it socially sensitive research but it is also unethical to use drugs experimentally on humans. This leaves behaviourists' with two alternatives: testing addiction on animals, and interviewing/quesitoning people about their habbits.

60) How does testing animals on addiction fit in with pasychology as a science?

Testing addiction on animals Behaviourists see humans as passive organs that learn with out conscious thought, therefore they would not see research on animals as problematic, e.g. the fact that animals cannot tell us what they are thinking. Thus much research in operant conditioning and addiction has used rodents and monkeys to see how reinforcing drugs are. Critics would argue that despite their methods being scientific and experimental the applicability to humans is questionable. Much research has shown that despite similar Mesolimbic systems, rodents have very different responses to some drugs, e.g. Mice and Rats synthesise 100 times the recommended amount of vitamin C that humans need to ward off cancer. Also, cats get stimulated by Morphine and Guinea Pigs are allergic to penicilin. Also, many drugs have been given the 'go ahead' after animal testing and then had tragic side affects on humans (Thalidomide, Opren, Eraldin). Therefore applicability to humans is questionable.

61) How does questioning/interviewing people fit in with psychology as a science?

Interviewing/questioning people about their drug habits (initiatin, maintenance and relapse) and using correlational studies. It is non experimental so cause and effect, falsufiability can not be demonstrated. This method has been mainly used by SLT, although classical conditioning have also used it for research on relapse and addiction. Thi is because it would be unethical to experiment on people who have given up drugs and then provide them with cues that may draw them back into their addiction. Experiments are possible on initiation and maintenance in classical conditioning as you can have the IV as a drug or gambling cue and a control group with no gambling cue. The DV can be pulse rate. This has been done with drinkers listening to pub sounds and is good research.

62) Why is SLT a difficult area to research?

SLT is a difficult area to research as there are too many variables to control How can you ever test if a role model has caused someone to smoke and control all the other influences in a person's life (TV, genes, parental attitude, friends, education, diet etc). This leaves you with the question of whether you think non experimental research is worth doing as it is non-scientific. Obviously humans are unlike objects in the natural sciences that believe in exactly the same way under experimental conditions, e.g. if I boil two cups of water they will both turn to gas at 100 degrees everytime i do it. But two people will behave differently if give them drugs, some will become addicts, some will use recreationally and some will never use them again. Human's are really complex beings who are influenced by so many things, this is why it is so difficult to research us and find out what makes us do things. For this reason, psychology has a problem with always following a truly scientific procedure when they are not studying a biological aspect of behaviour. Whether this means that YOU think that research does not show cause and eeffect is rubbish or that it is still worthwhile....for instance, if you build up enough non experimental methods and they indicate links to certain causes, is up to YOU to dispute and make commentary on.

63) What are 4 key factors in the biological approach of the initiation of smoking?

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64) How does the disease model fit in with the biological approach of the initiation of smoking?

Dopamine- Special neurons in the reward pathway release dopamine (Mesolimbic pathway), which gives you a sense of pleasure. Your memory tells you that a particular behaviour will make you feel good; the brain tells the body to initiate the behaviour. This reward pathway may be reinforced up to 20 times per cigarette (due to the number of puffs). Nicotine only takes 15 seconds to reach the brain; the shorter the time between action and reward the more reinforcing it is.

65) How does the genetice model fit in with the biological approach of the initiation of smoking?

Some people may respond more to nicotine or be prone to develop addictive personalities or physiological dependency for genetic reasons.

66) What did Coming research into the biological approach of the initiation of smoking show?

Significantly increased incidence of the A1 variation of the DRD2 gene among smokers and ex-smokers (48.7% compared to 25.9% of general population). Men with A1 variant also started smoking earlier and had shorter periods of abstinence from smoking. (A1 variant of gene=fewer dopamine receptors in the brain).

67) What did Silverstein research into the biological approach of the initiation of smoking show?

Found that biological factors may influence a person's first positive or negative experience with cigaretted (e.g. nausea, choking) affecting their likelihood of becoming a smoker.

68) What does the biological approach say about the maintenance of smoking?

Nicotine can induce change in the structure and function of the reward systems neurons that can be shown, using PET scans, to last for weeks and months. These changes contribute to tolerance, dependence and craving.
Stimulation of the brain areas collectively produces pleasure and reinforcement of that behaviour. Nicotine releases dopamine propmting incentive to continue and increase the behaviour. Continued overproduction of dopamine leads to desensitisation in receptors to compensate. This leads to increased desire to engage in the addictive behaviour to return to the same level of 'dopamine high' i.e the subject is becoming tolerant.

69) What did Thorgeirsson research into the biological approach of the maintenance of smoking show?

In their sample of 50,000 Icelanders, a pattern of gene variation at two points of chromosome 15. In their sample, the genetic variant had an effect on the number of cigaretted smoked per day.

70) What did Schachter research into the biological approach of the maintenance of smoking show?

The nicotine-regulation model suggests smokers smoke to maintain a certain level of nicotine in their system so as to avoid any negative withdrawal symptoms. He showed it depends on type of cigarette-low or high nicotine levels - smoked 25% more if it had a low level.

71) What does the biological approach say about relapse in smoking?

The Mesolimbic pathway also link to other areas of the brain including the memory area and help make addicts highly sensitive to reminders of past highs, vulnerable to relapse when stressed and unable to control the urge to repeat the addictive behaviour.
A period of abstinence, followed by just a small amount of nicotine means that an individual will experience a high even greater than that of a first time smoker (due to structural changes in the brain as a result of addiction; LTP).

72) What did Grunberg research into the biological approach of the relapse in smoking?

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with increased irritability and weight gain. This means the reward is directed else where e.g. food to satisfy the reward system. If this isn't maintained there is a possibility of relapse.
Smokers who are deprived of nicotine during withdrawal showed increased activity in certain parts of the brain concerned with attention, memory and also reward.

73) What are 4 key parts to the cognitive approach of the initiation of smoking?

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74) What does the expectancy theory show in the cognitive approach of the initiation of smoking?

Smith's Perceived Effects Theory-argues that expectancies regarding the effect of psychoactive substances play a major role in initiation, maintenance and excessive use of drugs.

75) What did Eiser show in the cognitive approach of the initiation of smoking?

Suggested veteran smokers transmit positive expectations about the effects of cigaretted to novices who might otherwise be put off by the first negative sensations.

76) What does the self medication model show about the cognitive approach of the initiation of smoking?

This model proposes that individuals intentionally use drugs to treat psychological symptoms from which they suffer, e.g. stress.

77) What does the rational choice theory show about the cognitive approach of the initiation of smoking?

Satisfaction, both anticipated and resultant, outweighs the costs, such as ill health and cost.

78) What are 3 key parts to the cognitive approach of the naintenance of smoking?

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79) What do attributions show in the cognitive approach of the maintenace of smoking?

Eiser cited in Durkin, study of 10,000 British adolescents indicated teenage smokers also acquired expectations of addiction frim veteran smokers and had a greater external locus of control about their health compared to non-smokers.

80) What does the expectancy theory show in the cognitive approach of the maintenance of smoking?

Brandon suggests that as an addiction develops, the activity is controlled less by conscious expectations and more by unconcious expectation involving automatic processing.

81) What does the self medication model show in the cognitive approach of the maintenance of smoking?

Many smokers report 'stress relief' as a reason for continuing smoking, however they also have higher average stress levels of stress decline when they stop smoking.

82) How do attitude/intentions/beliefs all fit into the cognitive approach of relapse in smoking?

Many cognitive theories or models aim to explain failure to abstain from addictive behaviour, e.g.:
-Locus of Control: those with an external locus of control may fail to take responsibility for changing their own behaviour.
-Self-efficiency: those with low self-efficiencey may feel incapable of changing their addictive behaviour.
-The theory of planned behaviour: Tate told smokers that they should expect no negative experiences during a period of abstinence. This led to fewer reported somatic and psychological effects (e.g. the shakes and mood disturbance) than a control group. The opposite effect was also found.

83) How does the social learning theory fit in with the behavioural explanation for intiation of smoking?

Suggests children automatically learn addictive behaviours like smoking through observation of influential role models, eg parents, peers, media celebrities and because they often selectively see positivie rather than negatice consequences (e.g. popularity rather than illness and debt). Vicarious reinforcement may lead to the imitation of these behaviours.

84) How does operant conditioning fit in with the behavioural explanation of the maintenance of smoking?

Argues short term pleasure form drugs (nicotine) provides more immediate positive reinforcement (reward) than the longer term effects (punishment) e.g. illness, debt, and thus maintains addictive behaviour. Avoiding unpleasant withdrwal symptoms is a potent source of negative reinforcement for continued drug taking.

85) How does tension reduction theory fit in with the behavioural explanation of the maintenance of smoking?

Conger argues that drugs may help avoid stress or fear arousal (negative reinforcement) e.g. social situations, by reducing inhibitations.

86) How does operant conditioning fit in with the behavioural explanation of the relapse of smoking?

Withdrawal effects act to maintain addictions through negative reinforcement of avoidance of the unpleasant stilmuli, but also increases the likelihood of relapse in some cases. People don't want to stop through fear of withdrawal symptoms they might get.

87) How does classical conditioning fit in with the behavioural explanaition of the relapse of smoking?

Suggests environmental cues present during the performance of addictive behaviour may become associated with the pleasure provided by the addiction (e.g. the bar may be associated with smoking). These cues may act as prompts, creating a craving for addictive behaviour and are key factors in psychological dependence and relapse (e.g. walking back into a familiar bar or seeing a friend with a cigarette after giving up nicotine).

88) What did Mayeux's study show into the addiction of smoking?

The claim that smoking among adolesecents is associated with peer popularity is supported in a study by Mayeux. They found a possitive predictive relationship between smoking (for boys) at 16 and popularity 2 years later. For other risky behaviours, such as use of alcohol and sexual activity, the relationship was the other way roun i.e. popularity at 16 predicted the onset of theses risky behaviours for both males and females 2 years later. The authors speculate that an increased awareness of the health risks of smoking among slightly older children would make smoking seem a less mature behaviour.

89) What research was done into gender bias of studies into smoking?

Nrin and Jane argue that there is an inherent gender bias in much of the research relating to smoking addiction. THe onset of smoking addiction follows a different pattern in men and women according to Lopez. They found that women start smoking later than men, and that there are gender-related differences in relation to both stages and context.

90) What is a methadological issue when it comes to research into smoking?

Smokers may not be willing to admit they have an addiction (affecting validity and reliability).
There are different levels of addiction among smokers.

91) What factors make people more vulnerable to get an addictive personality?

#NAME?

92) Who did research into how self-esteem may affect addiction?

#NAME?

93) What did Abood find about self-esteem and addiction?

Found a significant relationship between self-esteem and general health behaviour, with self-esteem accounting for a significant percentage of the variance in health behaviours among adolescents.

94) What did Baumeister claim about self-esteem and addiction?

Claimed that low self-esteem may cause people to behave in ways that are self-esteem may cause people to behave in ways that are aelf-defeating in order to escape self awareness.

95) Who gave some research support for Baumeister's study?

Taylor analysed data from a sample of 872 boys collected over a period of 9 years. Those who has very low self-esteem at age 11 were at higher risk for addiction at 20.
Bianchi and Philip's studty demonstrates that excessive phone use is evident among individuals with low levels of self-esteem.
Armstrong found that pathological internet usage was also more common in people with lower levels of self-esteem. They found that self-esteem was a good redictor of internet addiction and the amount of time spent online.

96) What is some research support of the whole self-esteem affecting addiction topic?

The claim that pathological internet use would be associated with low levels of self-esteem was supported by Niemz. Who found, in a study of 371 British students, that over 18% of the sample were considered to be pathological internet users.

97) What is an evaluation of of the research done into self-esteem and how it affects addiction?

The hypotheses that pathological users would score lower on the self-esteem scale was supported in the Niemz study. However, as with the Bianchi and Philips mobile phone study it is not certain whether this is a cause or consequence. It is possible that a low self-esteem drives people to use the internet more, particularly if they are finding it hard to adapt to life away from home but it is also possible that internet addiction leads people to become socially isolated, leading to lower levels of self-esteem.

98) What research has been done into attributions of addiction?

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99) What did Eiser show about attribution for addiction?

Eiser's study of smoking illustrated the importance of attributions in addiction. He found that smokers attempted to resolve the discomfort experienced from conflicting cognitions about their behaviour, by attributing their smoking to forces outside their control.

100) What did McAllister and Davies show about attribution for addiction?

Found that smokers who were labelled as 'heavy; amokers as part of their study, shifted their attributions for their smoking to become consistent with 'addiction'. To explain their now 'diagnosed' status as heavy smokers, participants produced explainations that could explain their behaviour, thus absolving them of any personal responsibility for this 'problem' behaviour.

101) What did Hatgis show about attribution for addiction?

Showed that attributions for the behaviour of others differ accorfing to substance type. They found that college student's attributions of greater personal responsibility for marijuana problems was less addictive than the other substances.

102) What is some research support into attributions for addiction?

Research suggests that attributions may be functional explanations rather than accurate reflections of real causes. Hammersley found that drug-users in prison tended to blame their drug use for their crimes of theft was criminal behaviour prior drug use.

103) What research has been done into smoking and the social context of addiction?

Research suggests that among adolescents, smokers tend to befriend smokers, and non-smokers befriend other non-smokers (Eiser). Transitions to increased levels of smoking are linked to peer's encouragement and approval, Logeter with the message that smoking is an activity that promoted popularity (McAllister). Theo theories are particularly relevant to the development of smoking bhaviour:
-Social learning theory
-Social identity theory

104) What does the Social Learning Theory involve?

Brandura- Behaviours are learned throught the observation of others, and subsequent modelling of this behaviour. Young people are most likely to imitate the behaviour of those with whom they have the most social contact. Once they have started smoking, experiences with the bew behaviour determine whether it persists.

105) What does the Social Identity Theory involve?

Abrams and Hogg- This assumes that group members adopt as their own those norms and behaviours that are central to the social identity of the group to which they belong. In peer groups where status as 'smoker' or 'non smoker' is central to the social identity of the group, individuals are likely to be similar to one another in their smoking habits.

106) How does heroin fit in with social context of addiction?

Draus and Carlson found that motivations to take heroin included the desire to experience the 'high' of injected heroin, the pressure of belonging to a social group that uses the drug, and the desire to escape difficulties in life circunstances. THe fears of injection and any accompanying health risk may be overcome by the resence of friends, and the positive accounts of drug effects circulationg through drug-using new users. Gossop argue that the act of injecting may itself become a strong source of identity, as users develop a solidarity based on their shared marginality from society plus the sharing of risk and resources. This is especially evident where drug-users are heavily stigmatised and can only find acceptance from each other.

107) What is some research support of the Social Learning Theory?

Many of the hypotheses consistent with th eimportance of social context in smoking have been supported by research. For example, research supports the claim that exposure to peer model sincreases the likelihood that teenagers will be smoking (Duncan). Likewise there is plentiful support for the claim that perceived rewards such as social status and popularity are part of the explanation of why adolecscents begin smoking and why they continue to smoke (Eiser).

108) What is some research support of the Social Identity Theory?

Although there is evidence to support the claim that adolescents are motivated to begin smoking by the stereotypes, they hold of specific social crowds (Michell), little is known about the extent to which these groups influence their members to smoke. Nor do we know whether adolescents are impervious to the demands of their social group when these evidently conflict with their own concerns to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

109) How is personality a vulnerability factor?

The addictive personality
-There is a popular belief that some people have addictive personalities. They are more likely to become addicted. If they don't become addicted to one thing they will become addicted to something else.

110) What current research is there into personality as a vulnerability factor?

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111) What traits correlate with addictive personality?

-Lack of self-esteem
-Social Alienation
-Depression and anxiety
-Impulsive Behaviour: 50% of alcoholic patients have disorders that include pathological impulsivity.
-Problems delaying gratifications
-Antishocial traits
*This could be crticised as the traits only emphasised a relationship with addictive personality, they don't say the cause.
*We could questionwhether all these traits would have to be present for someone to develop an addictive personality.

112) What does there need to be if addictive personality exists?

If addictive personality exists there needs to be accepted 'standard of proof'.
According to Nathan there must be the following trait or factor as standard of proof for addictive personality.
e.g. Either precede the intial signs of the disorder, or be discriminative. According to Nathan there must be proof to show that there must be valid links between personality and addictive behaviour. The personality must be pecific to the disorder, rather than coinside to the disorder, you must also have the trait before the addiction and it must be quite discriminative.

113) What are some evaluating points to personality as a vulnerability factor?

-Nathan: Some people are more prone to addiction than others. However, personality is complex and the role of personality in addiction is uncertain. It is difficult to tell whether the trait causes addiction or addiction causes teh trait.
-The suggestion is that there are pre-existing character defects in individuals, thus some will inevitably become addicted to said behaviour-could be down to situational factors.
-Problem: how can one untangle the effects of personality on addiction vs. the effects of addiction on personality (Teeson).
-Stein: People with certain behavioural traits may be more disposed to addiction e.g. drug abusers have been found to be more rebelious, impulsive and sensation seeking than non-users.
-Personality characteristics could be a cause rather than an effect of drug use, however, longitudinal studies have been conducted (Sheldler and Block) that found those with poor impulse control, social alienation and emotional distress at ages 7 and 11(links to age) were more likely to use marijuana once a week and have tried at least one other drug at age 18. This means that personality traits have an influence when it comes to addiction and in this case only 3 personality traits showed a link to addiction. Which also means all the personality trairts do not have to be present. This challenges Nathan's standard of proof since the results show us that personality thraits can infact be caused by an addiction rather than preceding the addiction.

114) What are some A03 points for personality as a vulnerability factor?

+We are more likely to see a link or cause when it comes to personality and addiction over a long period of time.
-Attrition may occur as some particpants could drop out making the results unreliable.
There is little eveidence of an addictive personality as research has shown that no personality trait guarantees addiction and that, in relation to an addictive personality trair, Nathan's 'Standard of Proof' have not been met.

115) What did Hans Eysenck do?

-Has proposed a psychological resource model, i.e. the individual develops an addictive habit because it fulfils a certain purpose related to the personality type of the individual.
-Esenck believes there are three major personality dimensions which are passed on genetically; this therefore emphasises the biological approach in terms of addiction.
-Psychoticism, neuroticism, extraversion

116) What do psychoticism, neuroticism and extraversion all mean?

Psychoticism: Some of the charactersitics of this dimension are aggression, coldness, impulsivity and egocentricity.
Neuroticism: The characteristics of this dimension includes moodiness, irritability and anxiety.
Extraversion: Some of the characteristics of this dimension are sociability, liveliness and optimism.

117) What research is there linking a relationship between drug dependancy and the personality dimensions?

Francis found dependency on alcohol, heroin, benzodiazepines and nictotine and higher than normal sources in N and P. In other words, people who are more moody, irritable and anxious (high N) and those are more impulsive and aggressive (high P) are more likely to have problems with substance dependancy.

118) What is a criticism of research that links a relationship between drug dependancy and the personality dimensions?

However, this is a correlational research and it is difficult to make satements about the causal relationship. It may be that people who have a drug problem become more moody, anxious and aggressive etc.

119) What research linking a relationship between alcohol dependency and personality disorders?

-These are groups of mental disorders characterised distinctive, maladaptive personality traits.
-Rounsaville: found link between alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (sociopath) and with conduct disorder (attention deficit disorder).

120) What is a criticism of research that links a relationship between alcohol dependency and personality disorders?

However, this is a correlational research and it is not clear whether there is a causal link. Never the less, clinicians need to be aware that substance addiction frequently coexists with other mental disorders as this has implications for seccessful treatment.

121) What did Deakin show about age affecting addiction?

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122) What did Sutherland and Wilner show about age affecting addiction?

Drinking alcohol is often seen in Western Cultures as marking a transition from childhood to adulthood. These seem to happen at an early age in the UK. About 1/3 of British 13-14 year-olds report having been drunk on more than one occassion, this seems to pave the age at which addiction might start.

123) What is some A02 of Sutherland and Wilner's study?

However, it is important to note that older people could be more prone to addiction because of the stresses and strains of life e.g. turning to alcohol as a relief. Therefore addiction and age could depend on the type of addiction being looked at.

124) How does biological vulnerability fit in with age and addiction?

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125) What are some key evaluation points for addiction research?

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126) What is some gender bias in attributions for addiction?

Hatgis found that both men and women attributed more personal responsibility for drug and alcohol-related problems to men than to wome. Thus, men appear to be more susceptible to making judgements biased by gende, with male drug and alcohol users being held more personally responsible for their problems than females.

127) What are the ethical issues in addiction research?

Lee suggests that research in sensitive areas creates particular ethical issues for the researcher. One of these is the 'threat of sanction', which involves the possibility that research may reveal information that is stigmatising or incriminating in some way. An example might be interviewing people with a drug addiction who may reveal illegal behaviours as part of the interview. When designing a study, researchers must weigh up the potential benefits against the potential risks.

128) What are thee methodological issues in addiction research?

Determining causality is a problem in studies such as Bianchi and Philip describes. It is not clear in this study whether (a) heavier mobile phone use leads to poor self-esteen by generating problems associated with inappropriate use, or (b) whether poor self-esteem leads to higher usage and greater likelihood of inappropriate use of mobile phones. It is only possible to address causality in this area by using longitudinal studies.

129) What did Eisen's study into initiation in the biological model of gambling involve?

In a study of over 3,000 male-male twin pairs, of which both twins served in the US military during the Vietnam era, it was found that inherited factors plus shared factors plus shared environmental experiences might explain 46-55% of the variance in pathological gambling.
Although this study provide evidence for genetic influence of gambling behaviour, its results lacks external validity as the sample of consisted of males with military background.

130) What did Winters and Rich's study into initation in the biological model of gambling involve?

Results of their twin study involving both males and females suggest that the role of genetics might be very different for men and women, for different types of gambling activity, and for different gambling criteria.

131) What did Comings study into initiation in the biological model of gambling involve?

Found a potential risk factor for pathological gambling- a specific variant of dopamine D2 receptor gene - called DRD2A1, which was found more often in pathological gamblers than in general population.

132) What is the maintenance and relapse part of the biological model of gambling?

Dopamine, a neurotransmitter which associated with pleasure centre of brain, is believed to be one important factor responsible for the maintenance of gambling. Genetic studies indicate that A1 variant of dopamine receptor D2 is linked to low dopamine levels. What did Cohen who demonstrated that low levels of dopamine induced by a drug enhances the reinforcing effects of slot machine gambling in pathological gamblers.

133) What is a problem with the maintenance and relapse part of the biological model of gambling?

A problem with this theory is that although the role of A1 variant of DRD2 in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling is supported by research evidence, it is unlikely that a single gene is responsible for a complex problem like gambling. Other research indicated a strong link between anomalies in D2 receptor genes and a variety of addictive-compulsice disorders (Blum).

134) What is the initiation of the role of biochemical factors?

Each neurotransmitter system has been proposed to play a unique role in the mechanisms that underlie arousal, behavioural initiation, and reward, each of which has been implicated in the cause of pathological gambling and other impulse control disorders. Thus, abnormal regulation of serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic functions may facilitate or underlie gambling behaviour.

135) What is the maintenance part of the role of biochemical factors?

It has been suggested that individuals gamble in order to experience the physiological 'buzz' associated with winning or 'near winning'. This has been linked to changes in body activity leading to a fluctuation of certain hormones, e.g. increase in dopamine levels, and other chemicals in our body. When gambling behaviour is excessive, these biological changes occur even when anticipating gambling or as a conditioned response to a gambling associated stimulus (Bennet). When we experience the biological responses, we are motivated to achieve the same pleasure again, by participating further in gambling behaviour.

136) What is the relapse part of the role of biochemical factors?

Once the behaviour is stopped, the gambler feels anxious, experiences and increased heart rate and raised blood pressure and in some cases mild tremors and sweating.
Rosenthal and Lesieur found that over 60% of pathological gamblers reported side-effects. However, the timing of these 'symptoms' suggests that they are more likely to be related to the recent experience of loss, feelings of indecidion about continued gambling, or worry and preoccupation about debts and other gambling related harms, rather thaat to cessation of gambling.

137) What is an evaluating study on the role of biochemical factors?

-Meyer examined the effect of gambling on heart rate and cortisol activity. They studied 10 male participants as they played blackjack in a casino and compared these males with a non gambling control group. It was found that heart rate and cortisol levels were higher in the gambling group. This research suggests that activation of sympathetic system leads to increased dopamine levels and other chemicals in the body which may reinforce and encourage future gambling. However, The nature of the research limits the validity and generalisability of its findings because it focussed on a small sample of male participants and just research casino gambling; meaning it can't be generalized to famale gambling or to the wider population or to other forms of gambling because it is possble that they might induce a totally different type of biological response.

138) What is a strength of the role of biochemical factors?

It brings together the principles of two fundemental and influential approaches in Psychology, meaning that it recognizes a more holistic explanation is necessary when trying to explain the complexities of addictive behaviour.

139) What is a weakness of the role of biochemical factors?

It could be seen as reductionist because it suggests that the only reason for addictive behaviour is to achieve biological stimulation, meaning it ignores other factors. Therefore limiting the validity of the theory.

140) How does the nature vs nurture debate fit in with the role of biochemical factors?

Model can help explain why addiction is only present in some individuals, despite being the same environment. However, it is generally more valid to adopt a diathesis-stress model, where predisposition is a necessary but not sufficient factor in the development of a pathology in order for the addictive symptoms to take place, an environmental trigger nees to occur.

141) What did Delfabbro and Winefield research into the initiation of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

According to social learning model, gambling behaviour is initiated, and maintained or discontinued, based on principles of learning such as imitation, observational learning, schedules of reinforcement. Initially money was theorized to be the positive reinforcement, but more recent thinking, supported by research, has elevated the importance of the reinforcing properties of physiological arousal in this model.

142) What did Skinner do into the initiation of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

Argued that the individual gambling behaviour is a function of his or her previous reinforcement history. He theorized that initial success with gambling led to an increased likelihood that that the gambling behaviour would continue, even if the reinforcement ratio declined. Skinner was able to demonstrate this learned pattern in rats and pigeons. However, his hypothesis was not tested on humans.

143) What did Custer do into the initiation of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

Emphasized the importance of the early big win in the development of pathological gambling.

144) What did Griffiths research into the maintenance of the initiation of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

Social learning theorists argued over why people affected by problem gambling tend to persist even when there is very little reinforcement. One, reinforcement schedules that pay off only intermittently (variable ratio schedule), as in gambling, are known to produce a greater persistence in the behaviour after the reward is stoppedm that would a schedule of continuous reward. Another fact is that persistence does actually pay off in a sense, because the gambler will eventually experience a win if he or she continues to gamble. Thus, persistence to gamble,even after many losses, is strengthened by the win.
If the pattern of reinforcement continues, associations may be formed through classical conditiong. The gambling environment becomes associated with increased arousal, and may generalize to other gambling-related stimul. These stimuli act as triggers for gambling because they have the ability to increase arousal.

145) What did Brown research into the maintenance of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

Brown proposed arousal as a key determinant of problem gambling. According to Brown, individuals have different psychophysiological arousal needs, and some learn to use gambling to regulate their arousal needs. Thus, arousal, not winning, may be the primary reinforcer of the gambling behaviour.

146) What is the relapse part of gambling in the learning or behavioural model?

Returning to gambling after a period of abstinence can be explained in teerms of conditioned response to cues.
Gamblers attempting to give up are surrounded with reminders of their addictive behaviour. These can be sufficient to generate the feelings associated with gambling, including the anticipation and the memory of the excitement associated with the behaviour, and a relapse may be the result.

147) What is an evaluation of the learning or behaviour model?

It takes the position that behaviour is acquired through a complex interaction of a variety of internal and external factors, it suggests that gambling can be conceptualized as a continuum. Further, the gambling problems are not considered permanent and irreversable. The course that problem gambling can take caries from one individual to another.
Implication of this approach to the teatment of problem gambling focus on successful resolution of addictive behaviour. They are more concerend with dealing eith the presesnt problems rather than knowing what led up to the problem.

148) What did both Carroll and Huxley and Griffiths find to di with the initiation part of gambling for the role of cognitive bias?

Found that young problem machine gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers in having a greater belief in the role of skill in machine gambling, and in giving overestimates of the amounts of money they were likely to win.

149) What did Wagenaar do in the maintenance and relapse part of gambling for the role of cognitive bias?

Describes a mechanism which maintains gambling behaviour, called 'gambler's fallacy'. This is an expectation that the probability of winning will increase with the lenght of an ongoing run of losses.

150) What did Langer do in the maintenance and relapse part of gambling for the role of cognitive bias?

Described the 'illusion of control', which is an expectancy of success higher than the objective probability would warrant.

151) What did Ried do in the maintenance and relapse part of gambling for the role of cognitive bias?

Proposed 'near miss' is a cognitive distortion is gamblers, which could produce some of the excitement of a win, as the player interprets the 'losing' as 'nearly winning' events.

152) What did Delfabbro and Winefield do in the maintenance and relapse part of gambling for the role of cognitive bias?

Found that 75% of game-related thoughts during gambling were irrational and encouraged further risk-taking. This kind of irrational cognition might will maintain arousal during gambling episodes.

153) Who further supported Delfabbro and Winefield's findings?

Sharpe, Tarrier and Schotte who demonstrated a relationship between the frequency of irrational verbalisations and arousal levels.

154) What is an evaluating point of the role of cognitive bias?

Cognitive explanations help explain individual differences: e.g. millions of people have gambled but not all get addicted, as not all develop faulty cognitive biases (irrational thinking patterns).

155) What is an evaluating point invloving Dickerson and Baron, of the role of cognitive bias?

A problem is that irrationality does not appear to be positively correlated to other observable facets of gambling, such as level of risk-taking or reinforcement frequency. Alternatively, where irationality positively related to involvement, few differences in behaviour have been observed. As a result, Dickerson and Baron have condluded that irrational thinking is probably a reflection of demand characteristics, rather than an underlying behaviour.

156) What is an evaulating point involving Griffiths, of the role of cognitive bias?

Cognitive theories fail to consider contextual factors which influence gambling behaviour. Griffiths found that regular gambliers had greater difficulty rhan occasional players in verbalising their thoughts while they are gambling. Regular players seemed capable of gambling without attending to what they are doing, suggesting that cognitive processes do not play a major role in the maintenance of their behaviour, but factors like how long a person has been gambling was more important.

157) How a structural variations a criticism of the role of cognitive bias?

It is found that the underlying cognitive processes such as overestimation of control and biased attributions are likely to be observed, when activities are requiring skill (Griffiths). The more people play or konw about these activities, the greater their awareness of the skills involved. Thus, beliefs about control and skill are neither completely irrational nor consistent across players.

158) What is a concluding, evaluating point of the role of cognitive bias?

It can be concluded that as there are variations in percieved skill based on different activities, which differ in terms of complexity and strategies, logically generalisations cannot be made by comparing results across studies using different chance activities.

159) How can the media cause an addiction to be developed and maintained?

-Boon and Lomore found 59% of young people have their attitude and beliefs influenced in some way by a celebrity.
-Media coverage of drug-using celbrities glamourises drug taking-influencing people's perception of the consequences of drug use, making them more likely to start using.
-Portrayal of addictive behaviours in the media may influence people by Social Learning mechanisms, e.g. if drug user rewarded, the behaviour is reinforced.
-This also acts as a reinforcer for the viewer
-Effects on advertising on addiction is hard to measure because tou can't tell how much media does affect peoples addictions.
-Legislation in UK bans cigaretter advertisements and restricted alcohol adverts, but gambling is still seen.

160) What did Sulkunen find?

140 scenes from 47 films representing various addiction. Only analysed scenes which directly represented addiction (61 scenes left). Addiction represented as a way of relieving a particular problem, contrasted with the dullness of ordinary life, and protesting against parental hypocrisy.

161) What did Gunasekera find?

87 most pop. Films over the last 20yrs. Films with drugs were less common: alcohol and smoking. Most addictive behaviours shown positively with no negative consequences. Only 1/87 films was free from negative health behaviours.

162) What did Sargent F fing?

Analysed 4000+ adolescents to the effects of smoking in the media assessed a year later. Of those who hadn't smoked prior to exposure, a year later this was a significant and strong predictor of whether or not they had started.

163) What did Boyd find?

Films do represent the negative consequences of addiction e.g. violence and crime, sexual degredation. In the US they are offered script to screen advice and given incentives if they do portray the negative consequences.

164) What did Byrne find?

The film industry is an important information tool e.g. the image of ECT comes not from the royal college of psychiatrist but from the film 'one flew over the cockoo's nest'.

165) What did Hanewickel find?

Tested whether adolescents' exposure to smoking in the mivies influenced their intiation into smoking. They survieged a total of 4384 adolescents aged 11-15 who were re-surveyed, exposure to movie smoking over the intervening year was a significant and strong predictor of whether they had begun to smoke when re-surveyed one year later.

166) What did Hansen find?

Smoking portrayed as socially acceptable and even sophisticated.

167) What did Chapmand and Fitzgerald find?

Underage smokers preference for heavily advertised brands.

168) What are some negative affects caused by the media in gambling?

-100% of interviewees remembered aspects of a gambling companies advertising campaign and described the people in it as 'funny' and 'cool'.
-Hyung: adverts portraying gambling positively can encourage people to take up gambling.

169) What is being done to prevent or break an addiction?

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170) What is the role of media in changing addictive behaviour?

Treatment to addiction is often hindered by their being too few professionals and the expense to the addict therefore a more communal approach may be better suited as it has been shown that the media is influential.
-Bennet: When comparing viewers of a series related to alcohol controls, there was an improvement in alcohol related knowledge but no change in behaviour/attitude to alcohol.
-Kraner: Assessed the effectiveness of a self-help tv to problem drinking. The intervention group was more successful at achieving low risk control and this was maintained after 3 months.
-In the UK an anti-drug campaign was launched to warn teenagers about the negative effects of drugs, but the evidence so far has been inconclusive to its effectiveness.

171) What are some methodological issues with Kraner's study?

Involved an intervention group, that watched the drinking less series, and a control group that remained on the waiting list for the same treatment. There are two main problems with this approach. First, the intervention group recieved weekly visits from the researchers so that the extra attention may well have worked in favour of a positive outcome for this group. Second, the waiting list group was aware that it would reciever treatment soon, so may well have postponed its behavioural change, thereby artificially inflating the nagnitude of the difference betweent eh two groups.

172) What did Hornik do?

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173) What did Johnston say?

Youths who saw campaign ads were more likely to think that their peers were using, therefore more likely to use themselves.

174) What did Friend and Levy find?

Well funded mass media campaigns reduce smoking when combined with tobaccos control programmes.

175) What did Klein find?

Anti smoking campaigns combined with telephone really helped to inform young people and reduce smoking rates.

176) What did Merserian find?

Depiciting gambling with emotional messages, and real life stories showing negative effects could significantly reduce gambling.

177) What did Hyung Seok find?

Adverts portraying gambling negatively can discourage people from taking up the habit.

178) What did Merserlain find?

'Judgemental' campaigns with messages such as don't do it were regarded by those interviewed as unlikely to syop adolescents from gambling.

179) What is an evalation of the effects of media on addiction?

Most of the evidence about media effects on addictive behaviour is correlational. However, this does not indicate a causal relationship between exposure and addiction.

180) What is an ethical issue of the effects of media on addicton?

In the US, the Office for Substance Abuse Protection has developed guideline materials about drugs for film and television writers. These recommend that writers should communicate that all illegal drug use is 'unhealthy and harmful for all persons', that addiction should be presented as a disease, and that abstinence is the 'variable choice for everyone'. These guidlines also note that there should be no references to 'recreational use of drugs', since no drug is 'recreational'.

181) What are the main assumptions of the theory of planned behaviour?

The TRS (theory of reseaoned action) emphasises the belief that behaviour is under the conscious control of the individual. Ajzen extended the TRA to include perceived behavioural control. In this new model, now called The Theory of Planned Behaviour, percieved behaviour control is assumed to act either on the intention to behave in a particular way, or directly on the behaviour itself. This is because:
-The more control people believe themselves to have over the behaviour in question, the stronger will be their intention to actually perform that behaviour.
-An individual with higher perceiver behavioural control is likely to try harder and to persevere for longer than someone with low perceived behavioural control.

182) What are applications to addictive and risky behaviour?

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183) What does intention to change unhealthy behaviours intail?

The TPB has been successfully applied in the prediction of a wide range of social behaviours. Rise found that affective attitude and descriptive norm played a more crucial role than other aspect of the TPB in predicting whether smokers would actually quit.

184) When is perceived comtrol important?

Percieved behavioural control taked on a more important role when issues of control are associtated with the performance of a task. Thus control has been found to contriute bery little to prediction of intentions to consume convenience food, but is an important predictor of the intention to lose weight (Nele Meyer).

185) What is some research support of the Theory of Planned Behviour?

Many studies have shown that intentions can be predicted from the three components of the TPB; measures of attitudes toward the behaviours, subjective norms and percieved behavioural control. A meta-analysis by Armitage and Conner found that perceived behavioural control added an extra 6% of the variance in intention compared to the assessment of attitude and subjective norm alone. This represents an improvement on the TRA.

186) How could the Theory of Planned Behaviour be seen as too rational?

Both the TRA and TRB are criticised as being too rational, failing to take into account emotions, compulsions or other irrational determinants of human behaviour (Armitage). When filling out a questionnaire about attitudes and intention, people may find it impossible to anticipate the strong desires and emotinos that compel their behaviour in real life. The presence of strong emotions may help to explain why people sometimes act irrationally bt failing to carry out an intended behaviour even when it is in their best interests to do so (Alburracin).

187) How does the Theory of Planned Behaviour predict intention rather than behaviour change?

Armitage and Conner's meta-analysis of studies using the TPB found that the model was successful in predicting intention to change rather than actual behavioural change. This pattern of results is typically found in the prediction of health behaviours that involve the adoption of difficult behavioural change projects. Suggesting that TPB is primarily an account of intention fromation rather than specifying the processes involved in translating the intention into action (Ajzen and Fishbein). We can therefore make a distinction between a motivational phase, which results in the formation of a behavioural intention, and a post-decisional phase, which involves behavioural initiation and maintenance (Abraham).

188) How does heroin addiction and methadone fit in with biological interventions?

Methadone is a synthetic drug widely used in the treatment of heroin addiction. Methadone mimics the effects of heroin but is less addictive. Like heroin, it produces feelings of euphoria, but to a lesser degree. Initially, a drug abuser is prescribed slowly increasing amounts of methadone to increase tolerance to the drug. The dose is then slowly decreased until the addict no longer needs either methadone or heroin.

189) What are the problems with methadone treatment?

Some drug addicts can become as reliant on methadone as they were on heroin, thereby substituting one addiction for another. The use of methadone remains controversial, with UK Statistics Authority figures showing that methadone was responsible for the deaths of over 300 people in the UK in 2007. Because for the majority of addicts, methadone consumption is unsupervised, it has created a black market in methadone, with addicts cometimes selling their doses for only �2.

190) How do drug treatments for gambling addiction fit in with biological explanations?

No drug has yet been approved in the UK to treat pathological gambling, but research suggests that drug treatments can have beneficial effects. There is, for example, evidence to support serotonin dysfunction in pathological gambling (George and Murali), and in a study by Hollander, gamblers treated with SSRIs to increase serotonin levels showed significant improvements compared to a control group. Administration of naltrexone, which is a dopamine receptor antagonist, works by reducing the rewarding and reinforcing properties of gambling behaviour, thus reducing the urge to gamble.

191) What are some problems with drug treatments for gambling addiction?

In the Hollander study the sample size was very small (N=10) and of relatively short duration (16 weeks). A larger and longer study (Blanco), involving 32 gamblers over 6 months, failed to demonstrate and superiority for SSRI treatment over a placebo. Support for the effectiveness of naltrexone comes from a study that found significant decreases in gambling thoughts and behaviours after 6 weeks of treatment (Kim and Grant).

192) How does reinforcement fit in with psychological interventions?

One way to reduce addictive behaviour is to give people rewards for not engaging in the behaviour in question. Sindelar investigated whether the provision of monetary rewards would produce better patient outcomes for people on methadone treatment programmes. Participants were randomly allocated to either a reward or no-reward condition in addition to both groups receiving their usual care. Participants in the rewards condition drew for prizes of various monetary value each time they tested negative for drugs. Drug use dropped significantly for participants in the rewards condition, with the number of negative urine samples being 60% higher compared to the control condition.

193) What is wrong with reinforcement interventions?

Reinforcement interventions do not address the underlying problem - Although research such as the Sindelar study have shown the effectiveness of reinforcement therapies for reducing addictive behaviour, such interventions do nothing to address the problem that led to the addiction in the first place. This means that although a specific addictive behaviour might have been reduced, there is the possibility that the person may simply engage in a different addictive behaviour instead. A drug addict may, for example, turn to alcohol, but in most cases new addictions tend to be subtle, including compulsive spending or even developing dependent relationships.

194) How do cognitive-behavioural therapies fit in with psychological interventions?

Cognitive behavioural therapy is based on the idea that addictive behaviours are maintained by the person's thoughts about these behaviours. The main goal of CBT is to help people change the way they think about their addiction, and to learn new ways of coping more effectively with the circumstances that led to these behaviours in the past. In gambling addiction for example, cognitive errors such as the belief that the individual can control and predict the outcomes plays a key part in the maintenance of gambling. CBT attempts to correct these errors in thinking, thus reducing the urge to gamble.

195) What is some research support for CBT?

Ladouceur randomly allocated 66 pathological gamblers either to a cognitive therapy group or to a waiting list control group. Of those who completed treatment, 86% no longer fulfilled the DSM criteria for pathological gambling. They also found that after treatment, gamblers had a better perception of control over their gambling problem and increased self-efficacy, improvements that were maintained at a one-year follow-up. Other treatments have combined cognitive and behavioural aspects of gambling, and attempted to alter gamblers' cognitions and behaviours. Sylvain evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural treatments in a sample of male pathological gamblers. Treatment included cognitive therapy, social skills training and relapse prevention. They found significant improvements after treatment, with these gains maintained at a one-year follow-up.

196) How does the NIDA study fit in with public health interventions?

Government-sponsored intervention studies such as the US National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study are designed to intervene in the cycle of personal and social problems associated with drug abuse. In this study, the provision of a combination of group and individual drug counselling significantly reduced cocaine use, with an associated reduction in other behaviours.

197) What was the NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study?

The NIDA Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study (Crits-Christoph) enrolled 487 patients who were randomly assigned to one of four interventions:
-Group drug counselling alone - learn about stages of recovery; engage in group problem-solving.
-Cognitive behavioural therapy/GDC - recognise and change distorted thinking about drug use.
-Supportive-expressive psychotherapy/GDC - learn how addiction affects relationships and how to improve interpersonal relations.
-Individual drug counselling/GDC - learn how to avoid drug triggers and adopt more positive behaviours.
All treatments decreased days of drug use in the previous month, from a mean of 10 days at the start of the study to three days later. The intervention combining individual drug counselling and group drug counselling worked best. At the six-month mark, for example, 39% of people in the IDC-GDC intervention reported using cocaine in the previous month, compared with 57% of people who underwent cognitive behavioural therapy and GDC, 49% of those who received supportive-expressive psychotherapy and GDC, and 52% of those receiving GDC alone.

198) How do telephone smoking quitlines fit in with public health interventions?

A meta-analysis by Stead, including over 18,000 participants, found that people who received repeated telephone calls from a counsellor increased their odds of stopping smoking by 50% compared to smokers who only received self-help materials and/or brief counselling. They conducted that multiple call-back counselling improves the long-term probability of cessation for smokers who contact Quitline services.

199) What did Boos and Croft do?

In a study of British military personnel deployed in Iraq, 29% of pre-existing regular smokers significantly increased their cigarette consumption while deployed. Furthermore, 7% of respondents reported starting to smoke for the first time as a result of deployment. Dealing with increased nicotine dependence in returning troops has become an important health issue in both countries. The use of telephone counselling for dependent smokers (Quitline services) has been reported to be effective in reducing smoking dependence in military veterans. Beckham took a sample of 24 US military veterans who had returned from deployment in either Iraq or Afghanistan, and gave them a combination of Quitline counselling services and nicotine replacement therapy. Research has shown that tobacco users are more likely to quit with therapy that includes a combination of counselling and medication. Of these 24, eleven (46%) had stopped smoking by their agreed 'quit date', with 9 still abstaining two months later.

200) How does intervention bias fit in with The Theory of Planned Behaviour?

Cohen and Cohen describe a phenomenon called 'the clinician's illusion'. They argue that many clinicians believe that alcoholism and drug addiction are extremely difficult to treat - more difficult than research suggests. The lack of routine screening for alcohol or drug problems means that many clinicians only come across addicts when their condition is well advanced, and in many cases too severe to effectively respond to treatment. The analogy of cervical cancer can be used to illustrate this biased perception. If women were not routinely screened with smear tests, cervical cancer would only become apparent when it was at a far more advanced stage. This would lead to the conclusion that cervical cancer was 'incurable'. The view of addiction as 'incurable' among the general public is further strengthened by biased media reports which rarely comment on celebrities who used to have an addiction problem, but who are now doing well.