Africa Colonialism & Independence

African Diversity

race, culture, language, religion (1. christianity, 2. islam)

Berlin Conference

1884 conference initiated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, European nations divided land to have access to trade routes, suppress slave trade still occurring in parts of Africa, firearms banned from being imported into Africa so Europeans had gun monopoly

Atlantic Charter

1941 document by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt that directed the Allies' war effort, trying to end colonial rule in Africa


movement to unify African people possibly economically, racially, socially, and politically

Scramble for Africa

1885-1910, competitive rush for territory in Africa, mainly Britain, France and Germany

Economic Rule

private companies granted large territories to administrate in Africa, formed by businessman trying to exploit the natural resources and gain wealth, Europeans benefited politically from the colonies but didn't have the expense of it

Direct Rule

centralized administrations, assimilation (African being civilized to be like Europe) policies, problem was that they forced assimilation on the people, "divide and rule

Indirect Rule

African rules without colonial administrations, wasn't understood that Africa had a variety of governments, increased divisions between ethnic groups, gave power to "big men

Settler Rule

settlers had direct rule on the colonies, economical exploitation and political oppression were the issues, harsh towards Africans, SURVIVED LONGEST DURING COLONIALISM IN AFRICA

British vs. French Colonialism

British-Africans will always be different than Europeans, implied racism, limited support to colonies
French-if Africans met standards then treated equally, closeness with colonies


colonial Belgian Congo government tried increasing foreign investment to develop agricultural commodities for export, exploit country's mineral resources, establish transportation for export of goods, led by King Leopold II who exploited Congo natives,

Leopold II

king of Belgium, colonized Congo with help of Henry Morton Stanley, founder of Democratic Republic of Congo, exploited Congo natives

Patrice Lumumba

first democratically chosen leader of Democratic Republic of Congo, felt colonialism was violent and humiliating, wanted political independence and African benefit from their great wealth in their soil, country was in turmoil, assassinated in 1961 because

Joseph Mobutu

took power in Democratic Republic of Congo through military coup, 32-year authoritarian dictatorship strong relations with US, destroyed country, overthrown in 1997, tried to kill all of the Congolese colonialists


parties forced to cooperate, Milton Obote wanted to build a strong central government, had a one-party rule and dictatorship
Amin attacked Obote with the loyalty of the soldiers, people thought this would save Uganda, but he was a military based dictator


Belgian paternalism-basic political rights could be withheld from Africans as long as their material and spiritual needs were properly met, Africans essentially "big children

Social Darwinism

belief that all social and personal problems were inherited, racism involved with superiors and inferiors

Colonialism Debate

pros: technological advancements, markets modernized, education improved, trade expansion, higher living standards
cons: ruined culture, slave trade, foreign companies made the money, war over minerals


W.E. B. Du Bois was American, discussed mistreating of African-Americans in the U.S and of Africans in their own continent with their poor living conditions, anti-slavery, wanted freedom and equality to be enforced throughout Africa, enforced democratic s

Independence Movements

South Africa started it w/ Mandela's campaign for independence

Failure of Democracy

usually when leader elected, becomes corrupt and a dictator, rigs elections and ruins democracy

Socialism/Communism in Africa

appealing alternative to capitalism, history of tribal collectivism (collective control/distribution)

Big Man

greedy, corrupt, full power, take country's wealth, military enforced, limit civilian rights, keep out foreigners, propaganda, good speakers/charismatic, usually uneducated soldiers, humble roots, inexperienced, came in under unstable gvt., don't usually

Robert Mugabe

-president of Zimbabwe from 1980-present
- Zimbabwe called Rhodesia before independence
-won first democratic election
-economy decreased by 40%, inflation big issue
- racist to whites by taking farmland
-compared himself to Hitler, "reign of terror" duri

Nelson Mandela

-President of South Africa (1994-1999)
-first elected president in South African democracy
-resisted against apartheid, won nobel peace prize for it
-in prison for 27 years for "sabotage + treason" against apartheid
-had the good big man qualiti

Omar al-Bashir

-Sudanese president from 1989-present
-built roads and schools, increased oil production
-crimes against humanity-murder, torture, genocide, rape
-responsible for killing in Darfur genocide
-military background, overthrew government

Charles Taylor

-Liberian president from 1997-2003
-overthrew/executed old leader, led to civil war
-voted leader, "He killed my ma, he killed my pa, I'm going to vote for him" was slogan
-war crimes/violations, gave weapons for blood diamonds (diamonds used to pay for c

Muammar Gaddafi

-Libyan leader from 1969-2011
-led military coup in rebellion against anarchy government, gained full power
-autocratic leader
-greedy, corrupt, inexperienced, controlled military, full power, limited civilian rights, humble roots
-killed and imprisoned f

Hosni Mubarak

-4th president of Egypt (1981-2011)
-high ranks in military led to power
-limited rights of people
-supported Israelis against Palestinians, allies w/ US
-corrupt, took foreign aid money
-stepped down from power after protests
-on trial for murder of anti

Desmond Tutu

-educated bishop in South Africa
-as archbishop fought apartheid
-Nobel Peace Prize for ending Apartheid
- trying to end poverty and corruption
-not many big man traits
-not political leader

Libya Conflict Current Event

-Gaddafi supporters fired rockets from Bani Walid
-NTC says supporters going to Niger to flee
-loyalists were supposed to surrender
- Musician N'Dour said famine is more important than war, drought triggered famine
-Somalia has no functional government, c

Reasons for optimism in Africa (postcolonial period)

adaptable societies, strong family support, educated students

Why Afirca has famine

overpopulation, drought, locust infestations, declining commodity prices on world markets

Problem with debt and economic growth

with debt you need loans, with the loans your economy can't grow

health problems in Africa

HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria (preventable with bed nets), cholera (small intestine, results in diarrhea)

Colonialism impact on African economies

Africa tied in to world economy but not always beneficial, high prices for imports and low prices for exports due to inflation

signs for optimism in Africa

many people that can read and write, people know many languages, modern technology developing, central authority emerged in some countries

Africa's climate issue

big difference in climate from the North to the South, continent can't develop well

Location to poor/rich countries

Rich: North and far south b/c not tropical zone and easier trade with ports and water access
Poor: Central b/c difficulty trading with no water access


white supremacy, lasted for 50 years, Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu helped end it

sub-Saharan Africa

worst living conditions w/ famine, drought

economic motivation for Europe to colonize Africa

raw materials, market for manufactured goods

Main types of opposition to colonialism in Africa

religion, economy, mass protests, demands for opportunity and inclusion

US view of colonialism

They wanted it to end for free trade and political influence